Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area4,545,792 km2 (1,755,140 sq mi)
Population641,775,797 (3rd)[1]
Population density135.6/km2 (351/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)$2.557 trillion (exchange rate)[2]
GDP (PPP)$7.6 trillion[3]
GDP per capita$4,018 (exchange rate)[2]
HDI0.684
DemonymSoutheast Asian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zones
Largest cities

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of Japan and China, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Eastern India (India stretches from South Asia to Southeast Asia), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, and West Malaysia.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprising the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Taiwan is also included by many anthropologists.

The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.[5]

Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2 (1.7 million mi2), which is 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 641 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after South Asia and East Asia.[citation needed] The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups.[6] Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organisation established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.[7]

Definitions

The region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by the Europeans as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋 (Nanyang), which literally means the Southern Ocean. The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, however, the term became more restricted to former French Indochina territory (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam). The maritime section of Southeast Asia is also known as Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race.[8] Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia (Indian Islands), used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia.[9]

The term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by an American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book entitled Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia.[10] The term was officially used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command (SEAC) in 1943.[11] SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia", although what constituted Southeast Asia in the early days was not fixed, for example the Philippines and a large part of Indonesia were excluded by SEAC while Ceylon was included. However, by the late 1970s, a roughly standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged.[12] Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective, the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries (sovereign states and dependent territories) listed below.

Ten of eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea.

Some part of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (a disputed region or nation), are also considered as part of the Southeast Asia by some authors.[13][14][15]

Political divisions

Sovereign states

State Area
(km2)[2]
Population
(2016)[1]
Density
(/km2)
GDP (nominal),
USD (2016)[2]
GDP (PPP)
per capita,
Int$ (2016)[2]
HDI (2016)[16]:22–24 Capital
 Brunei Darussalam 5,765 423,196 78 10,458,000,000 $76,884 0.865 Bandar Seri Begawan
 Cambodia 181,035 15,762,370 85 19,368,000,000 $3,737 0.563 Phnom Penh
 East Timor/Timor-Leste 14,874 1,268,671 75 2,501,000,000 $4,187 0.605 Dili
 Indonesia 1,904,569 261,115,456 132 940,953,000,000 $11,720 0.689 Jakarta
 Laos 236,800 6,758,353 30 13,761,000,000 $5,710 0.586 Vientiane
 Malaysia 329,847 31,187,265 91 302,748,000,000 $27,267 0.789 Kuala Lumpur *
 Myanmar 676,000 52,885,223 78 68,277,000,000 $5,832 0.556 Nay Pyi Daw
 Philippines 343,448 103,320,222 294 311,687,000,000 $7,728 0.682 Manila
 Singapore 724 5,622,455 7,671 296,642,000,000 $90,151 0.925  Singapore
 Thailand 513,120 68,863,514 127 390,592,000,000 $16,888 0.740 Bangkok
 Vietnam 331,210 94,569,072 279 200,493,000,000 $6,429 0.683 Hanoi

* Administrative centre in Putrajaya.

Dependent territories

UNSD statistical divisions for Asia based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[17]
  Southeast Asia
Territory Area (km2) Population Density (/km2) Capital
 Christmas Island 135[18] 1,402[18] 10.4 Flying Fish Cove
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 14[19] 596[19] 42.6 West Island (Pulau Panjang)

Administrative subdivisions

Territory Area (km2) Population Density (/km2) Capital
India Andaman and Nicobar Islands 8,251 379,944[20] 46 Port Blair

Geographical divisions

Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (or Indochina) and Maritime Southeast Asia (or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago) (Javanese: Nusantara).

Mainland Southeast Asia includes:

Maritime Southeast Asia includes:

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia and sometimes considered both South Asian and Southeast Asian.[21] Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia.[12][22] The rest of the island of New Guinea which is not part of Indonesia, namely, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, and so are Palau, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region.[23]

The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor (east of the Wallace Line) are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania (Wallacea) due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf.

Location map of oceans, seas, major gulfs and straits in Southeast Asia
Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
Bali Sea
Bali Sea
Banda Sea
Banda Sea
Ceram Sea
Ceram Sea
Flores Sea
Flores Sea
Java Sea
Java Sea
Molucca Sea
Molucca Sea
Savu Sea
Savu Sea
South China Sea
South China Sea
Timor Sea
Timor Sea
Bohol Sea
Bohol Sea
Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
Philippine Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Philippine Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Samar Sea
Samar Sea
Sibuyan Sea
Sibuyan Sea
Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
Bismarck Sea
Bismarck Sea
Coral Sea
Coral Sea
East China Sea
East China Sea
Solomon Sea
Solomon Sea
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
Makassar Strait
Makassar Strait
Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
Karimata Strait
Karimata Strait
Luzon Strait
Luzon Strait
Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Gulf of Tomini
Gulf of Tomini
Sunda Strait
Sunda Strait
Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
Oceans and Seas in Southeast Asia
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suidoos-Asië
Alemannisch: Südostasien
العربية: جنوب شرق آسيا
azərbaycanca: Cənub-Şərqi Asiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Tang-lâm-a
Basa Banyumasan: Asia Tenggara
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўднёва-Ўсходняя Азія
Bikol Central: Sur-subangan na Asya
български: Югоизточна Азия
Boarisch: Sidostasien
brezhoneg: Azia ar gevred
Deutsch: Südostasien
eesti: Kagu-Aasia
Esperanto: Sud-Orienta Azio
français: Asie du Sud-Est
贛語: 東南亞
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tûng-nàm-Â
한국어: 동남아시아
Bahasa Indonesia: Asia Tenggara
íslenska: Suðaustur-Asía
къарачай-малкъар: Къыбыла-Кюнчыгъыш Азия
македонски: Југоисточна Азија
Bahasa Melayu: Asia Tenggara
Baso Minangkabau: Asia Tenggara
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dĕ̤ng-nàng-ā
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အရှေ့တောင်အာရှ
Nederlands: Zuidoost-Azië
日本語: 東南アジア
Nordfriisk: Süüduastaasien
norsk nynorsk: Søraust-Asia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Janubi-Sharqiy Osiyo
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍
português: Sudeste Asiático
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qubla-shıg'ıs Aziya
română: Asia de Sud-Est
sicilianu: Asia dû Sud-est
Simple English: Southeast Asia
slovenščina: Jugovzhodna Azija
српски / srpski: Југоисточна Азија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jugoistočna Azija
Basa Sunda: Asia Kidul Wétan
svenska: Sydostasien
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شەرقىي جەنۇبىي ئاسىيا
Tiếng Việt: Đông Nam Á
文言: 東南亞
West-Vlams: Zuudôost-Azië
吴语: 东南亚
粵語: 東南亞
žemaitėška: Pėitrītiu Azėjė
中文: 东南亚
Lingua Franca Nova: Asia sude-este