South Sulawesi

South Sulawesi

Sulawesi Selatan
Regional transcription(s)
 • Bugineseᨔᨘᨒᨕᨙᨔᨗ ᨑᨗᨐᨈ
Sulawési Riattang
Makassar CBD Skyline.jpg
Pare-Pare view-2.JPG
Waduk Bili-Bili Sulawesi Selatan.jpg
Pantai Bira, sunset (6969009247).jpg
Traditional Toraja House.JPG
Floating houses on Lake Tempe.jpg
Obyek wisata Rammang-Rammang.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Makassar Skyline Night, Bili-bili Reservoir, Tongkonan houses in Tana Toraja, Limestone hills in Maros, Rice fields in South Sulawesi, Floating houses on Lake Tempe, Tanjung Bira beach
Flag of South Sulawesi
Flag
Coat of arms of South Sulawesi
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Toddo' Puli / ᨈᨚᨉᨚᨄᨘᨒᨗ
(Keep the faith)
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 4°20′S 120°15′E / 4°20′S 120°15′E / -4.333; 120.250)
HDI rankGovernment official site

South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan, abbreviated as Sulsel; Buginese: ᨔᨘᨒᨓᨙᨔᨗ ᨑᨗᨐᨈ) is a province in the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. The Selayar Islands archipelago to the south of Sulawesi is also part of the province. The capital is Makassar. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi to the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi to the east, Makassar Strait to the west, and Flores Sea to the south.

The 2010 census estimated the population as 8,032,551 which makes South Sulawesi the most populous province on the island (46% of the population of Sulawesi is in South Sulawesi), and the sixth most populous province in Indonesia. By mid 2019 this was estimated to have risen to 8,819,500.[3] The main ethnic groups in South Sulawesi are the Buginese, Makassarese, Toraja, and Mandar. The economy of the province is based on agriculture, fishing, and mining of gold, magnesium, iron and other metals. The pinisi, a traditional Indonesian two-masted sailing ship, is still used widely by the Buginese and Makassarese, mostly for inter-insular transportation, cargo, and fishing purposes within the Indonesian archipelago.

During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th to 19th centuries, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands. There were a number of small kingdoms, including two prominent ones, the Kingdom of Gowa near Makassar and the Bugis kingdom located in Bone. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) began operating in the region in the 15th century. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince, Arung Palakka, and they defeated the kingdom of Gowa. The king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign a treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa.

History

A village in South Sulawesi 1929
Celebes Map 1905

Sulawesi was first inhabited by humans about 30,000 years ago. The archaeological remains of the earliest inhabitants were discovered in caves near limestone hills around Maros, about 30 km northeast of Makassar, the capital of the South Sulawesi province. Pebble and flake stone tools have been collected from the river terraces in the valley of Walanae, among Soppeng and Sengkang, including the bones from giant pig and elephant species that are now extinct. Hand print paintings, estimated to be around 35,000 to 40,000 years old, have been found in the Pettakere cave,[4] located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the town of Maros and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Makassar.[5]

During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th to 19th centuries, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands.

At around the 14th century in South Sulawesi there were a number of small kingdoms, including two prominent ones, the Kingdom of Gowa near Makassar and the Bugis kingdom located in Bone. In 1530, the kingdom of Gowa began development and in the mid 16th century, Gowa become one of the most important trade centers in eastern Indonesia. In 1605, the King of Gowa embraced Islam and made the kingdom of Gowa Islamist and between the years 1608 and 1611, the Kingdom of Gowa conquered the kingdom of Bugis so that Islam could be spread to the regions of Makassar and Bone.

Regent of Maros, Makassar, Sulawesi

Dutch East India Company began operating in the region in the 17th century and saw the Kingdom of Gowa as an obstacle to its desire for control of the spice trade in this area. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince, Arung Palakka, who was living in exile after the fall of the Bugis. After a year-long battle, they defeated the kingdom of Gowa. And the king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign a treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa. Furthermore, Palakka became ruler in South Sulawesi.

A Bugis queen later emerged to lead the resistance against the Dutch, who were busy dealing with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Yet once past the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch returned to South Sulawesi and eradicated the queen's rebellion. But resistance of the Bugis people against colonial rule continued until 1905. In 1905, the Dutch also managed to conquer Tana Toraja.

Mangi Mangi Karaeng Bontonompo, king of Gowa, with the public and some dignitaries during the installation of acting governor of Celebes and dependencies, Mr. Bosselaar, 1937

Before the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, South Sulawesi consisted of a number of independent kingdoms' territory and was inhabited by four ethnic groups namely the Bugis, Makassar, Mandar, and Toraja.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Lâm Sulawesi
Basa Banyumasan: Sulawesi Selatan
беларуская: Паўднёвы Сулавесі
български: Южно Сулавеси
čeština: Jižní Sulawesi
Esperanto: Suda Sulaveso
euskara: Hego Sulawesi
français: Sulawesi du Sud
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nàm Sulawesi
Bahasa Hulontalo: Sulawesi Selatan
Bahasa Indonesia: Sulawesi Selatan
lietuvių: Pietų Sulavesis
Bahasa Melayu: Sulawesi Selatan
Minangkabau: Sulawesi Selatan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nàng Sulawesi
Nederlands: Zuid-Sulawesi
português: Celebes Meridional
српски / srpski: Јужни Сулавеси
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južni Sulawesi
Türkçe: Güney Sulawesi
українська: Південне Сулавесі
Tiếng Việt: Nam Sulawesi