South America

South America
South America (orthographic projection).svg
Area17,840,000 km2 (6,890,000 sq mi) (4th)
Population420,458,044 (2016; 5th)[1]
Population density21.4/km2 (56.0/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)$3.94 trillion (2017; 4th)[2]
GDP (PPP)$6.57 trillion (2017; 4th)[3]
GDP per capita$9,330 (2017; 4th)[4]
DemonymSouth American
Countries12
Dependencies4
LanguagesSpanish, Portuguese, English, French, Dutch, Quechua, Hindustani, Sranan Tongo, Saramaccan, other languages
Time zonesUTC-2 to UTC-5
Largest citiesList of cities in South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[5][6] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[7]

It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina). In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million.[1] South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has also concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.[7]

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics.

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states reflect Western traditions.

Geography

A composite relief image of South America

South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically[8] all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone[9][10][11] and among the countries of Central America.[12][13] Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.

South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana; the largest river (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m [22,841 ft]); the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert;[14][15][16] the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.

South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone.

Outlying islands

Traditionally, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Trinidad, Tobago, and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are often considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate, even though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela.[11][17][18]

Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island (in Oceania but belonging to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé (both Chilean) and Tierra del Fuego (split in between Chile and Argentina). In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associated with either South America or Antarctica.[19][citation needed]

Climate

Map of South America according to Köppen climate classification
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006.

The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude.[20]

In temperate latitudes, winters are milder and summers warmer than in North America. Because its most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone, the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.[20]

The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 °C, with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.[20]

The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type.[20]

The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, tropical cyclones are practically unknown in the South Atlantic.[21] In the Orinoco lhanos and in the Guianas plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions. The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the driest regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime.[20]

Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.[20][22]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Ипшэ Америкэ
адыгабзэ: Къыблэ Америкэ
Afrikaans: Suid-Amerika
Alemannisch: Südamerika
Ænglisc: Sūðamerica
aragonés: America d'o Sud
asturianu: América del Sur
Avañe'ẽ: Ñemby Amérika
azərbaycanca: Cənubi Amerika
Bahasa Banjar: Amirika Selatan
Bân-lâm-gú: Lâm Bí-chiu
Basa Banyumasan: Amerika Selatan
башҡортса: Көньяҡ Америка
беларуская: Паўднёвая Амерыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўднёвая Амэрыка
Bikol Central: Amerika nin Sur
Bislama: Saot Amerika
български: Южна Америка
Boarisch: Siidamerika
bosanski: Južna Amerika
brezhoneg: Suamerika
čeština: Jižní Amerika
chiShona: South America
Cymraeg: De America
dansk: Sydamerika
davvisámegiella: Lulli-Amerihkká
Deitsch: Saut Amerikaa
Deutsch: Südamerika
Ελληνικά: Νότια Αμερική
Esperanto: Sudameriko
estremeñu: América del Sul
euskara: Hego Amerika
Fiji Hindi: South America
føroyskt: Suðuramerika
français: Amérique du Sud
Gàidhlig: Aimearaga a Deas
贛語: 南美洲
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nàm Mî-chû
한국어: 남아메리카
Hawaiʻi: ‘Amelika Hema
hornjoserbsce: Južna Amerika
hrvatski: Južna Amerika
Bahasa Indonesia: Amerika Selatan
interlingua: America del Sud
Interlingue: America del Sud
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᒥᐊᓕᑲ ᓂᒋᖅ
isiXhosa: UmZantsi Melika
íslenska: Suður-Ameríka
Basa Jawa: Amérika Kidul
kalaallisut: Amerika Kujalleq
Kapampangan: Mauling Amerika
къарачай-малкъар: Къыбыла Америка
kaszëbsczi: Pôłniowô Amerika
kernowek: Amerika Dheghow
Kinyarwanda: Amerika y’Epfo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Amerik disid
Кыргызча: Түштүк Америка
latviešu: Dienvidamerika
Lëtzebuergesch: Südamerika
lietuvių: Pietų Amerika
Limburgs: Zuud-Amerika
Livvinkarjala: Suvi-Amerikku
la .lojban.: ketytu'a
Luganda: South America
magyar: Dél-Amerika
македонски: Јужна Америка
მარგალური: ობჟათე ამერიკა
Bahasa Melayu: Amerika Selatan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nàng Mī-ciŭ
မြန်မာဘာသာ: တောင်အမေရိက
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Sudamerica
Nederlands: Zuid-Amerika
नेपाल भाषा: दक्षिण अमेरिका
日本語: 南アメリカ
Nordfriisk: Süüd-Ameerikoo
Norfuk / Pitkern: Sowth Merika
norsk nynorsk: Sør-Amerika
Novial: Sudi Amerika
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Janubiy Amerika
Papiamentu: Sur Amérika
Patois: Sout Amoerka
Перем Коми: Лунвыв Америка
Piemontèis: América Meridional
Tok Pisin: Saut Amerika
Plattdüütsch: Süüdamerika
português: América do Sul
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qubla Amerika
qırımtatarca: Cenübiy Amerika
română: America de Sud
rumantsch: America dal Sid
Runa Simi: Urin Awya Yala
русиньскый: Южна Америка
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Amerika i Saute
संस्कृतम्: दक्षिण अमेरिका
Seeltersk: Suud-Amerikoa
Sesotho: Amerika Borwa
Sesotho sa Leboa: Amerika Borwa
sicilianu: Amèrica dû Sud
Simple English: South America
slovenčina: Južná Amerika
slovenščina: Južna Amerika
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Южьна Амєрїка
Sranantongo: Ondro Amrika
српски / srpski: Јужна Америка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Južna Amerika
Basa Sunda: Amérika Kidul
svenska: Sydamerika
Tagalog: Timog Amerika
татарча/tatarça: Көньяк Америка
Türkçe: Güney Amerika
Türkmençe: Günorta Amerika
українська: Південна Америка
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جەنۇبىي ئامېرىكا
Vahcuengh: Nanzmeijcouh
vepsän kel’: Suviamerik
Tiếng Việt: Nam Mỹ
Volapük: Sulüda-Merop
West-Vlams: Zuud-Amerika
吴语: 南美洲
粵語: 南美洲
Zeêuws: Zuud-Amerika
žemaitėška: Pėitū Amerėka
中文: 南美洲
Lingua Franca Nova: America Sude