Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora
Free and Sovereign State of Sonora
Flag of Sonora
State of Sonora within Mexico
State of Sonora within Mexico
Coordinates: 29°38′46″N 110°52′08″W / 29°38′46″N 110°52′08″W / 29.64611; -110.86889
Largest cityHermosillo
AdmissionJanuary 10, 1824[1]
 • BodyCongress of Sonora
 • GovernorClaudia Pavlovich PRI logo (Mexico).svg
 • Senators[2]Arturo Bours Griffith Morena
Lilly Téllez Morena
Sylvana Beltrones Sánchez PRI logo (Mexico).svg
 • Deputies[3]
 • Total179,355 km2 (69,249 sq mi)
 Ranked 2nd
Highest elevation2,620 m (8,600 ft)
 • Total2,850,330
 • Rank18th
 • Density16/km2 (41/sq mi)
 • Density rank27th
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST[7])
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (No DST)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-SON
HDIIncrease 0.806 Very High Ranked 4th out of 32
GDPUS$ 16,416,142.57 th[b]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Estado de Occidente (Western State) also recognized as Sonora y Sinaloa.
^ b. The state's GDP was $210,126,625 thousand of pesos in 2008,[8] amount corresponding to $16,416,142.57 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[9]

Sonora (Spanish pronunciation: [soˈnoɾa] (About this soundlisten)), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora (English: Free and Sovereign State of Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo.Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border primarily with the state of Arizona with a small length with New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.

Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo, the O’odham, the Yaqui, and Seri. It has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory.[10] From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.


Several theories exist as to the origin of the name "Sonora". One theory states that the name was derived from Nuestra Señora, the name given to the territory when Diego de Guzmán crossed the Yaqui River on the day of Nuestra Señora del Rosario ("Our Lady of the Rosary"), which falls on October 7 with the pronunciation possibly changing because none of the indigenous languages of the area have the ñ sound. Another theory states that Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions, who had wrecked off the Florida coast and made their way across the continent, were forced to cross the arid state from north to south, carrying an image of Nuestra Señora de las Angustias ("Our Lady of Anguish") on a cloth. They encountered the Opata, who could not pronounce Señora, instead saying Senora or Sonora. A third theory, written by Father Cristóbal de Cañas in 1730, states that the name comes from the word for a natural water well, sonot, which the Spaniards eventually modified to "Sonora". The first record of the name Sonora comes from explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, who passed through the state in 1540 and called part of the area the Valle de la Sonora. Francisco de Ibarra also traveled through the area in 1567 and referred to the Valles de Señora.[11] The literal meaning of "sonora" in Spanish is "sonorous" or "loud."

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sonora
العربية: ولاية سونورا
aragonés: Sonora
asturianu: Sonora
Aymar aru: Sonora Istadu
Bân-lâm-gú: Sonora Chiu
беларуская: Санора
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Санора
български: Сонора
brezhoneg: Sonora (stad)
català: Sonora
čeština: Sonora (stát)
Cymraeg: Sonora
dansk: Sonora
Ελληνικά: Σονόρα
español: Sonora
Esperanto: Sonora
euskara: Sonora
français: Sonora
Gaeilge: Sonora
galego: Sonora
한국어: 소노라주
հայերեն: Սոնորա
hrvatski: Sonora
Ido: Sonora
Ilokano: Sonora
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সোনোরা
Bahasa Indonesia: Sonora
interlingua: Stato Sonora
Ирон: Сонорæ
italiano: Sonora (stato)
עברית: סונורה
Kapampangan: Sonora
kernowek: Sonora
Kiswahili: Sonora (jimbo)
Ladino: Sonora
Latina: Sonora
latviešu: Sonora
lietuvių: Sonora
magyar: Sonora
македонски: Сонора
Malagasy: Sonora
मराठी: सोनोरा
مازِرونی: سونورا ایالت
Bahasa Melayu: Sonora
Nāhuatl: Sonora
Nederlands: Sonora (staat)
日本語: ソノラ州
norsk: Sonora
norsk nynorsk: Sonora
occitan: Sonora
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sonora
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੋਨੋਰਾ
پنجابی: سونورا
Piemontèis: Sonora
português: Sonora
română: Sonora
Runa Simi: Sonora suyu
русский: Сонора
sardu: Sonora
Scots: Sonora
Simple English: Sonora
slovenčina: Sonora (štát)
српски / srpski: Сонора
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sonora
suomi: Sonora
Tagalog: Sonora
татарча/tatarça: Сонора
тоҷикӣ: Сонора
Tsetsêhestâhese: Sonora
Türkçe: Sonora
українська: Сонора
اردو: سونورا
Tiếng Việt: Sonora
Winaray: Sonora
吴语: 索诺拉州
粵語: 索諾拉州
中文: 索諾拉州