Sol Invictus

Mosaic of Sol in Mausoleum M in the Vatican Necropolis[1]

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults.[2] Scholars disagree about whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol,[3] a revival of the cult of Elagabalus,[4] or completely new.[5] The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine I.[6] The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to AD 387,[7] and there were enough devotees in the fifth century that the Christian theologian Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.[8]

Invictus as epithet

Dedication made by a priest of Jupiter Dolichenus on behalf of the well-being (salus) of the emperors, to Sol Invictus and the Genius of the military unit equites singulares Augusti[9]

Invictus ("unconquered, invincible") was an epithet utilized for several Roman deities, including Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, Apollo, and Silvanus.[10] It had been in use from the 3rd century BC.[11] The Roman cult to Sol is continuous from the "earliest history" of the city until the institution of the Christian cult as the exclusive state religion. Scholars have sometimes regarded the traditional Sol and Sol Invictus as two separate deities, but the rejection of this view by S. E. Hijmans has found supporters.[12]

An inscription of AD 102 records a restoration of a portico of Sol in what is now the Trastevere area of Rome by a certain Gaius Iulius Anicetus.[13] While he may perhaps have had in mind an allusion to his own cognomen, which is the Latinized form of the Greek equivalent of invictus, ἀνίκητος (aniketos),[14] the earliest extant dated inscription that uses invictus as an epithet of Sol is from AD 158.[15] Another, stylistically dated to the 2nd century, is inscribed on a Roman phalera (ornamental disk): inventori lucis soli invicto augusto ("to the contriver of light, sol invictus augustus").[dubious ][16][17] Augustus is a regular epithet linking deities to the Imperial cult.[citation needed]

Sol Invictus played a prominent role in the Mithraic mysteries, and was equated with Mithras.[18][19][20] The relation of the Mithraic Sol Invictus to the public cult of the deity with the same name is unclear and perhaps non-existent.[21]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sol Invictus
العربية: سول إنفكتوس
asturianu: Sol Invictus
беларуская: Sol Invictus
català: Sol Invictus
español: Sol Invictus
Esperanto: Sol Invictus
euskara: Sol Invictus
한국어: 솔 인빅투스
հայերեն: Անհաղթ Արև
hrvatski: Sol Invictus
Bahasa Indonesia: Sol Invictus
interlingua: Sol Invicte
italiano: Sol Invictus
Latina: Sol invictus
Limburgs: Sol Invictus
македонски: Сол Инвиктус
Nederlands: Sol Invictus
norsk nynorsk: Sol Invictus
polski: Sol Invictus
português: Sol Invicto
Simple English: Sol Invictus
српски / srpski: Сол Инвиктус
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sol Invictus
Tagalog: Sol Invictus
українська: Sol Invictus
Tiếng Việt: Sol Invictus