Sociology is the scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture. [1] [2] [3] It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation [4] and critical analysis [5] to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change. Many sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure. [6]

The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.

The range of social scientific methods has also expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. [7] [8]

Social research informs politicians and policy makers, educators, planners, legislators, administrators, developers, business magnates, managers, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields. [9]


Sociology is distinguished from various general social studies courses, which bear little relation to sociological theory or to social-science research- methodology. The US National Science Foundation classifies sociology as a STEM field. [10] [11]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sosiologie
Alemannisch: Soziologie
العربية: علم الاجتماع
aragonés: Sociolochía
asturianu: Socioloxía
azərbaycanca: Sosiologiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Siā-hoē-ha̍k
беларуская: Сацыялогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сацыялёгія
български: Социология
bosanski: Sociologija
català: Sociologia
Чӑвашла: Социологи
Cebuano: Sosyolohiya
čeština: Sociologie
chiShona: Daranzanga
corsu: Sociologia
Cymraeg: Cymdeithaseg
dansk: Sociologi
Deutsch: Soziologie
Ελληνικά: Κοινωνιολογία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Sociologìa
español: Sociología
Esperanto: Sociologio
estremeñu: Sociologia
euskara: Soziologia
français: Sociologie
Frysk: Sosjology
furlan: Sociologjie
Gàidhlig: Eòlas-comainn
galego: Socioloxía
贛語: 社會學
한국어: 사회학
hrvatski: Sociologija
Bahasa Indonesia: Sosiologi
interlingua: Sociologia
Interlingue: Sociologie
isiXhosa: ISosioloji
íslenska: Félagsfræði
italiano: Sociologia
Basa Jawa: Sosiologi
къарачай-малкъар: Социология
ქართული: სოციოლოგია
қазақша: Әлеуметтану
Kiswahili: Sosholojia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sosyoloji
Kurdî: Civaknasî
Кыргызча: Социология
Ladino: Sosiolojiya
Latina: Sociologia
latviešu: Socioloģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Soziologie
lietuvių: Sociologija
Ligure: Sòciologia
Limburgs: Sociologie
magyar: Szociológia
македонски: Социологија
Bahasa Melayu: Sosiologi
Mirandés: Sociologie
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လူမှုဗေဒ
Nederlands: Sociologie
Nedersaksies: Sosjologie
नेपाल भाषा: समाजशास्त्र
日本語: 社会学
Nordfriisk: Sosjologii
norsk: Sosiologi
norsk nynorsk: Sosiologi
Nouormand: Sociologie
Novial: Sosiologia
occitan: Sociologia
олык марий: Социологий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sotsiologiya
Patois: Suosialaji
Picard: Sociolodjie
Tok Pisin: Sosiolosi
Plattdüütsch: Soziologie
polski: Socjologia
português: Sociologia
română: Sociologie
русиньскый: Соціолоґія
русский: Социология
саха тыла: Социология
संस्कृतम्: समाजशास्त्रम्
Scots: Sociology
sicilianu: Suciuluggìa
Simple English: Sociology
slovenčina: Sociológia
slovenščina: Sociologija
کوردی: کۆمەڵناسی
српски / srpski: Социологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sociologija
Basa Sunda: Sosiologi
suomi: Sosiologia
svenska: Sociologi
Tagalog: Sosyolohiya
татарча/tatarça: Социология
Türkçe: Sosyoloji
Türkmençe: Sosiologiýa
українська: Соціологія
vèneto: Sociołogia
Tiếng Việt: Xã hội học
Winaray: Sosyolohiya
ייִדיש: סאציאלאגיע
粵語: 社會學
Zazaki: Sosyolociye
Zeêuws: Sociolohie
žemaitėška: Suocēluogėjė
中文: 社会学