Smallpox

  • smallpox
    other namesvariola,[1] variola vera,[2] pox,[3] red plague[4]
    child with smallpox bangladesh.jpg
    a child with smallpox in bangladesh in 1973. the bumps filled with thick fluid and a depression or dimple in the center are characteristic.
    specialtyinfectious disease
    symptoms
    • early: fever, vomiting, mouth sores[5]
    • later: fluid filled blisters which scab over[5]
    complicationsscarring of the skin, blindness[6]
    usual onset1 to 3 weeks following exposure[5]
    durationabout 4 weeks[5]
    causesvariola major, variola minor (spread between people)[6][7]
    diagnostic methodbased on symptoms and confirmed by pcr[8]
    differential diagnosischickenpox, impetigo, molluscum contagiosum, monkeypox[8]
    preventionsmallpox vaccine[9]
    treatmentsupportive care[10]
    prognosis30% risk of death[5]
    frequencyeradicated (last wild case in 1977)

    smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, variola major and variola minor.[7] the last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in october 1977, and the world health organization (who) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] the risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][11] often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, and some were left blind.[6]

    the initial symptoms of the disease included fever and vomiting.[5] this was followed by formation of sores in the mouth and a skin rash.[5] over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid-filled bumps with a dent in the center.[5] the bumps then scabbed over and fell off, leaving scars.[5] the disease was spread between people or via contaminated objects.[6][12] prevention was by the smallpox vaccine.[9] once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped.[9]

    the origin of smallpox is unknown.[13] the earliest evidence of the disease dates to the 3rd century bce in egyptian mummies.[13] the disease historically occurred in outbreaks.[10] in 18th-century europe, it is estimated 400,000 people per year died from the disease, and one-third of the cases resulted in blindness.[10][14] these deaths included four reigning monarchs and a queen consort.[10][14] smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century[15][16] and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence.[17] as recently as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year.[10]

    edward jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.[10] in 1967, the who intensified efforts to eliminate the disease.[10] smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011.[18][19] the term "smallpox" was first used in britain in the early 16th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, which was then known as the "great pox".[20][21] other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, and red plague.[3][4][21]

  • classification
  • signs and symptoms
  • cause
  • diagnosis
  • prevention
  • treatment
  • prognosis
  • history
  • society and culture
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Smallpox
Other namesVariola,[1] variola vera,[2] pox,[3] red plague[4]
Child with Smallpox Bangladesh.jpg
A child with smallpox in Bangladesh in 1973. The bumps filled with thick fluid and a depression or dimple in the center are characteristic.
SpecialtyInfectious disease
Symptoms
ComplicationsScarring of the skin, blindness[6]
Usual onset1 to 3 weeks following exposure[5]
DurationAbout 4 weeks[5]
CausesVariola major, Variola minor (spread between people)[6][7]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms and confirmed by PCR[8]
Differential diagnosisChickenpox, impetigo, molluscum contagiosum, monkeypox[8]
PreventionSmallpox vaccine[9]
TreatmentSupportive care[10]
Prognosis30% risk of death[5]
FrequencyEradicated (last wild case in 1977)

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[7] The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] The risk of death following contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][11] Often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, and some were left blind.[6]

The initial symptoms of the disease included fever and vomiting.[5] This was followed by formation of sores in the mouth and a skin rash.[5] Over a number of days the skin rash turned into characteristic fluid-filled bumps with a dent in the center.[5] The bumps then scabbed over and fell off, leaving scars.[5] The disease was spread between people or via contaminated objects.[6][12] Prevention was by the smallpox vaccine.[9] Once the disease had developed, certain antiviral medication may have helped.[9]

The origin of smallpox is unknown.[13] The earliest evidence of the disease dates to the 3rd century BCE in Egyptian mummies.[13] The disease historically occurred in outbreaks.[10] In 18th-century Europe, it is estimated 400,000 people per year died from the disease, and one-third of the cases resulted in blindness.[10][14] These deaths included four reigning monarchs and a queen consort.[10][14] Smallpox is estimated to have killed up to 300 million people in the 20th century[15][16] and around 500 million people in the last 100 years of its existence.[17] As recently as 1967, 15 million cases occurred a year.[10]

Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.[10] In 1967, the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease.[10] Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest in 2011.[18][19] The term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the early 16th century to distinguish the disease from syphilis, which was then known as the "great pox".[20][21] Other historical names for the disease include pox, speckled monster, and red plague.[3][4][21]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pokke
Alemannisch: Pocken
العربية: جدري
aragonés: Picueta
অসমীয়া: বৰআই
asturianu: Viruela
Avañe'ẽ: Mbiru'a
Aymar aru: Chuqu usu
azərbaycanca: Təbii çiçək
Bân-lâm-gú: Thian-hoa
башҡортса: Ҡара сәсәк
беларуская: Натуральная воспа
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Натуральная воспа
български: Едра шарка
bosanski: Boginje
català: Verola
Cymraeg: Brech wen
dansk: Kopper
Deutsch: Pocken
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކަށި ވިދުރި
Diné bizaad: Łóódtsoh
eesti: Rõuged
Ελληνικά: Ευλογιά
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Varōl
español: Viruela
Esperanto: Variolo
euskara: Baztanga
فارسی: آبله
français: Variole
Gaeilge: Bolgach
Gàidhlig: Breac (tinneas)
galego: Varíola
ગુજરાતી: શીતળા
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thiên-fâ
한국어: 천연두
հայերեն: Բնական ծաղիկ
हिन्दी: चेचक
hrvatski: Boginje
Ilokano: Burtong
Bahasa Indonesia: Variola
Ирон: Хæбуз
íslenska: Bólusótt
italiano: Vaiolo
қазақша: Қара шешек
Kiswahili: Ndui
Кыргызча: Чечек
Latina: Variola
latviešu: Bakas
лезги: ЦIегьер
lietuvių: Raupai
lumbaart: Varioeul
македонски: Сипаници
മലയാളം: വസൂരി
मराठी: देवी (रोग)
مصرى: جدرى
Bahasa Melayu: Cacar
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tiĕng-huă
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကျောက်ကြီးရောဂါ
Nāhuatl: Mātlālzahuatl
Nederlands: Pokken
日本語: 天然痘
Nordfriisk: Pooken
norsk nynorsk: Koppar
occitan: Veròla
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବସନ୍ତ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chechak
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚੇਚਕ
پنجابی: چیچک
Patois: Sumaalpax
Piemontèis: Vairòle
português: Varíola
română: Variolă
Runa Simi: Muru unquy
саха тыла: Уоспа
संस्कृतम्: मसूरिका
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱚᱥᱚᱱ
sicilianu: Vaiolu
සිංහල: වසූරිය
Simple English: Smallpox
slovenčina: Kiahne
slovenščina: Črne koze
کوردی: ھاوڵە
српски / srpski: Богиње
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Boginje
suomi: Isorokko
svenska: Smittkoppor
Tagalog: Bulutong
татарча/tatarça: Чәчәк (авыру)
తెలుగు: మశూచి
українська: Натуральна віспа
اردو: چیچک
Tiếng Việt: Đậu mùa
Võro: Hernetõbi
Winaray: Pandok
吴语: 天花
ייִדיש: פאקן
žemaitėška: Raupā
中文: 天花