Ski jumping

Ski jumping
FIS Ski Weltcup Titisee-Neustadt 2016 - Peter Prevc1.jpg
Highest governing bodyInternational Ski Federation (FIS)
First played22 November 1808
Olaf Rye,
Eidsberg church, Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team membersM Individual (50)
L Individual (40)
Team event (4)
TypeNordic skiing
EquipmentSkis
VenueSki jumping hill
Presence
Olympic1924 (men)
2014 (women)
World Championships1925 (men's nordic)
1972 (ski flying)
2009 (women's nordic)

Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, competitor's style and other factors affect the final score. Ski jumping was first contested in Norway in the late 19th century, and later spread through Europe and North America in the early 20th century. Along with cross-country skiing, it constitutes the traditional group of Nordic skiing disciplines.

The ski jumping venue, commonly referred to as a hill, consists of the jumping ramp (in-run), take-off table, and a landing hill. Each jump is evaluated according to the distance traveled and the style performed. The distance score is related to the construction point (also known as the K-point), which is a line drawn in the landing area and serves as a "target" for the competitors to reach.[1] The score of each judge evaluating the style can reach a maximum of 20 points. The jumping technique has evolved over the years, from jumps with the parallel skis with both arms pointing forwards, to the "V-style", which is widely used today.

Ski jumping has been included at the Winter Olympics since 1924 and at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships since 1925. Women's participation in the sport began in the 1990s, while the first women's event at the Olympics has been held in 2014. All major ski jumping competitions are organised by the International Ski Federation. Stefan Kraft holds the official record for the world's longest ski jump with 253.5 metres (832 ft), set on the ski flying hill in Vikersund in 2017.[2] Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on an in-run where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is covered with water-soaked plastic. The highest level summer competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, contested since 1994.

History

Like most of the Nordic skiing disciplines, the first ski jumping competitions were held in Norway in the 19th century, although there is evidence of ski jumping in the late 18th century. The recorded origins of the first ski jump trace back to 1808, when Olaf Rye reached 9.5 m (31 ft). Sondre Norheim, who is regarded as the "father" of the modern ski jumping, won the first-ever ski jumping competition with prizes, which was held in Høydalsmo in 1866.

The first larger ski jumping competition was held on Husebyrennet hill in Oslo, Norway, in 1875. Due to its poor infrastructure and the weather conditions, in 1892 the event was moved to Holmenkollen, which is today still one of the main ski jumping events in the season.

In the late 19th century, Sondre Norheim and Nordic skier Karl Hovelsen immigrated to the United States and started developing the sport in that country. In 1924, ski jumping was featured at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France. The sport has been featured at the every Olympics since.

Ski jumping was brought to Canada by Norwegian immigrant Nels Nelsen. Starting with his example in 1915 until the late 1960s, annual ski jumping competitions were held on Mount Revelstoke — the ski hill Nelsen designed — the longest period of any Canadian ski jumping venue. Revelstoke's was the biggest natural ski jump hill in Canada and internationally recognized as one of the best in North America. The length and natural grade of its 600 m (2,000 ft) hill made possible jumps of over 60 m (200 ft)—the longest in Canada. It was also the only hill in Canada where world ski jumping records were set, in 1916, 1921, 1925, 1932, and 1933.[3]

In 1935, the origins of the ski flying began in Planica, Slovenia, where Josef Bradl became the first competitor in history to jump over 100 m (330 ft). At the same venue, the first official jump over 200 m (660 ft) was achieved in 1994, when Toni Nieminen landed at 203 metres.[4]

In 1964 in Zakopane, Poland, the large hill event was introduced at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. In the same year, the normal hill event was included on the Olympic programme at the 1964 Winter Olympics. The team event was added later, at the 1988 Winter Olympics.

Other Languages
العربية: قفز تزلجي
asturianu: Saltu d'esquí
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Скачкі на лыжах з трампліну
български: Ски скокове
català: Salt d'esquí
Cymraeg: Neidio sgi
dansk: Skihop
Deutsch: Skispringen
Ελληνικά: Άλμα με σκι
español: Salto de esquí
Esperanto: Skisaltado
euskara: Eski-jauzi
فارسی: اسکی پرش
français: Saut à ski
한국어: 스키점프
հայերեն: Դահուկացատկ
Interlingue: Ski-Saltation
íslenska: Skíðastökk
magyar: Síugrás
македонски: Скијачки скокови
Nederlands: Schansspringen
norsk: Skihopping
norsk nynorsk: Skihopping
occitan: Saut d'esquí
português: Salto de esqui
Scots: Ski jimpin
Simple English: Ski jumping
slovenščina: Smučarski skoki
српски / srpski: Скијашки скокови
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Skijaški skokovi
suomi: Mäkihyppy
svenska: Backhoppning
татарча/tatarça: Трамплиннан сикерү
Türkçe: Kayakla atlama
West-Vlams: Schansspringn
粵語: 跳臺滑雪
中文: 跳台滑雪