Sinking of MV Sewol

Sinking of MV Sewol
Korean Ferry Sewol Capsized, 2014.jpg
MV Sewol sinking, as taken by the South Korean coast guard on 16 April 2014
Native nameHangul세월호 침몰 사고
Date16 April 2014; 4 years ago (2014-04-16)
TimeAround 9 a.m. to around 11:30 a.m. (KST)
Location1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) off Donggeochado,[1] Jindo County, South Jeolla Province, South Korea
Coordinates34°13′5″N 125°57′0″E / 34°13′5″N 125°57′0″E / 34.21806; 125.95000
Deaths299 on-board[2]
2 rescue divers[3]
5 emergency workers[4]
Missing5[2]
Property damageCargo: ₩200 billion ($180 million)[5]
Inquest3 separate investigations[6]
Suspect(s)Captain and 14 crew members[7]
ChargesHomicide (4 including the captain),[8] Fleeing and abandoning ship (2),[9] Negligence (9)[9]
VerdictGuilty
ConvictionsLife sentence (captain), 10 years (chief engineer), 18 months −12 years (13 other crew)[10]
On board476[11][12][13] (325 Danwon High School students)[14]
Survivors172[15](171 excluding the subsequent suicide of the vice principal of Danwon High School)

The sinking of MV Sewol (Hangul세월호 침몰 사고; Hanja世越號沈沒事故),[16] also referred to as the Sewol Ferry Disaster, occurred on the morning of 16 April 2014, when the passenger/ro-ro ferry was en route from Incheon towards Jeju in South Korea.[17] The Japanese-built South Korean ferry sank while carrying 476 people, mostly secondary school students from Danwon High School (Ansan City).[18] The 6,825-ton vessel sent a distress signal from about 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) north of Byeongpungdo at 08:58 Korea Standard Time (23:58 UTC, 15 April 2014).[19] In total, 304 passengers and crew members died in the disaster.[20][21] Of the approximately 172 survivors, more than half were rescued by fishing boats and other commercial vessels that arrived at the scene approximately 40 minutes after the South Korean coast guard.[22]

The sinking of Sewol resulted in widespread social and political reaction within South Korea. Many criticized the actions of the captain and most of the crew.[23] Also criticized were the ferry operator and the regulators who oversaw its operations,[24] along with the South Korean government for its disaster response (including the poor showing of the then Korean coastguard) and attempts to downplay government culpability.[25]

On 15 May 2014, the captain and three crew members were charged with murder, while the other 11 members of the crew were indicted for abandoning the ship.[26] An arrest warrant was also issued for Yoo Byung-eun, the owner of Chonghaejin Marine, which operated Sewol, but he could not be found despite a nationwide manhunt. On 22 July 2014, police revealed that they had established that a dead man found in a field 415 kilometres south of Seoul was Yoo. Foul play was ruled out.[20]

Background

Sewol at a port in Incheon on March 2014, after modifications had been made

At the time of her purchase by Chonghaejin Marine in 2012, the ship that would come to be known as the Motor Vessel (MV) Sewol was 18 years old and dilapidated.[27] She was originally named Ferry Naminoue and was operated from 1994 to 2012[28] as a transport ship for cargo and passengers by the Japanese company A-Line Ferry.[29]:9 According to A-Line Ferry, she did not experience any problems while being operated by the company in Japan.[30] After she was purchased on 8 October 2012, she was registered by Chonghaejin on 22 October 2012 and underwent modifications from 12 October 2012 to 12 February 2013.[29]:9 The modifications were later found to have been based on an illegal redesign of the ship.[31]

After the modifications, which included the addition of two floors of passenger space and the expansion of the cargo space,[32] Sewol had her gross tonnage increase by 239 tons to 6,825 tons and her persons capacity increase by 116 people for a total of 956 people including the crew.[29]:11 The modifications also resulted in her center of gravity being moved upward by .51 m (1 ft 8 in)[29]:11 as well as a left-right imbalance.[33] After the modifications were completed, she underwent investigations by the Korean Register of Shipping including an inclining test, and received the ship inspection certification and the certification for the prevention of sea pollution on 12 February 2013.[29]:15 During the process of approving the modifications, the Register reduced the maximum amount of cargo that could be carried by 1,450 tons to 987 tons, and increased the amount of ballast needed by 1,333 tons, to 1,703 tons.[34] The cargo limits were not known by the Korea Shipping Association, who has the responsibility to manage ferries, or the Korea Coast Guard, who were responsible for overseeing the Shipping Association.[35] The South Korea government's Audit and Inspection Board later revealed that the Register's licensing was based on falsified documents.[36] After the inspections, 37 tons of marble were further added to the gallery room at the bridge deck located on the back of the ship.[29]:17

Sewol began operations on 15 March 2013.[37] She made three rounds trips per week from Incheon to Jeju, each one-way voyage of 425 kilometres (264 mi) taking 13.5 hours to complete.[38] On 19 February 2014, she received an interim inspection and a periodic inspection from the Register.[29]:17 She had made the round trip a total of 241 times until the day of the incident.[37]

Route of Sewol during the last voyage from Incheon to Jeju, the capsizing location marked by the rectangular speech bubble[39]

On 15 April 2014, Sewol was scheduled to leave the port at Incheon at 6:30 p.m., Korea Standard Time.[40] A fog which restricted the visible distance to less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) led the Incheon Vessel traffic service (VTS) to issue a low visibility warning around 5:30 p.m., leading the Shipping Association to hold Sewol's departure. The VTS retracted the warning around 8:35 p.m., and the Shipping Association removed the restriction on Sewol's departure after checking the weather conditions with the operator of the Palmido lighthouse and consulting with the Korean Coast Guard.[29]:30 She departed around 9 p.m., and was the only ship to leave port that evening.[40]

When she departed, she was carrying 443 passengers, 33 crew members, and a total of 2,142.7 tons of cargo including 185 cars.[29]:31 325 of the passengers were students on a field trip from Danwon High School[41] and five passengers were of non-Korean nationality.[42] The ship was commanded by 69-year-old Captain Lee Joon-seok,[43] who had been brought in as a replacement for the regular captain.[44] He had over 40 years of experience at sea, and had traveled the route before.[45] He was hired on a one-year contract, with a monthly salary of ₩2.7 million (roughly 2,500 USD).[46] Lee worked with 33 crew members for the journey,[47] of which 19 were irregular, part-time workers.[48]

Later investigations discovered problems concerning the state of Sewol at the time of departure. The Safety Investigation Report made by the Korea Maritime Safety Tribunal noted that Sewol at the time of departure was carrying 2,142.7 tons of cargo when its maximum allowance was 987 tons.[29]:34 TIME magazine further noted that the cargo had been improperly secured.[49] The Report also noted that only 761.2 tons of ballast were taken on board, that some ballast tanks had not been properly maintained, and that the last voyage was made without making further adjustments to the ballast during the journey.[29]:36-37 Kukmin Ilbo reported that Captain Shin, the regular captain of Sewol, had warned the company about the decrease in stability and passenger satisfaction and attributed it to the removal of the side ramp. Captain Shin claimed that the company responded with threats to fire him if he continued his objections. Captain Shin's warnings were also relayed through an official working for the Incheon Port Authority on 9 April 2014, which an official from the company responded to by stating that he would deal with anyone making the claims.[50] The Korea Herald also reported that the captain had requested a repair for the malfunctioning steering gear on 1 April 2014, which was not done.[51] The Daily Telegraph reported that the Korean Register of Shipping had noted in a stability test report dated 24 January 2014 that Sewol had become 'too heavy and less stable after modifications were made.'[52] The New York Times reported that the company budget for the safety training of the crew was $2 USD, which was used to buy a paper certificate.[53]

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