Sikkim

Sikkim
State
Kanchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world, lies partially in Sikkim
Kanchenjunga, the third highest mountain in the world, lies partially in Sikkim
Flag of Sikkim
Flag
Official seal of Sikkim
Seal
Location of Sikkim
Coordinates (Gangtok): 27°20′N 88°37′E / 27°20′N 88°37′E / 27.33; 88.62
Country India
Admission to Union 16 May 1975
CapitalGangtok
Largest cityGangtok
Districts4
Government
 • GovernorShriniwas Dadasaheb Patil
 • Chief MinisterPawan Chamling (SDF)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (32 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha 1
Lok Sabha 1
 • High CourtSikkim High Court
Area
 • Total7,096 km2 (2,740 sq mi)
Area rank28th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total610,577
 • Rank29th
 • Density86/km2 (220/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Sikkimese
Languages[2]
 • OfficialEnglish, Nepali
 • Additional official
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-SK
HDIIncrease 0.684 (medium)
HDI rank7th (2005)
Literacy82.6% (13th)
WebsiteSikkim.gov.in
Assembly of Sikkim abolished monarchy and resolved to be a constituent unit of India. A referendum was held on these issues and majority of the voters voted yes. On 15 May 1975 the President of India ratified a constitutional amendment that made Sikkim the 22nd state of India.
State symbols of Sikkim
Song"Music of Sikkim"
Animal
RedPandaFullBody.JPG
Red Panda
Bird
Blood Pheasant.jpg
Blood Pheasant
Flower
Dendrobium nobile - Larssen.jpg
Noble dendrobium (Dendrobium nobile)[3][4]
Tree
Alpenroos.jpg
Rhododendron

Sikkim (m/) is a state in Northeast India. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west and the Indian state of West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is also located close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kanchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. Almost 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park.[5]

The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded on the Silk Road by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century. It was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. It became a princely state of British India in 1890. After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the republic of India. It enjoyed the highest literacy rate and per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1975, the Indian military deposed the Sikkimese monarchy. A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state.[6]

Modern Sikkim is a multiethnic and multilingual Indian state. Sikkim has 11 official languages: Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha, Tamang, Limbu, Newari, Rai, Gurung, Magar, Sunwar and English.[7][8] English is taught in schools and used in government documents. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Sikkim's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and tourism, and as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states,[9] although it is also among the fastest-growing.[9][10]

Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, and is the world's second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to fully organic over the interval 2003 to 2016, the first state in India to achieve this distinction.[11] [12][13][14] It is also among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles and styrofoam products.[15][16]

Toponymy

The origin theory of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two Limbu words: su, which means "new", and khyim, which means "palace" or "house".[17] The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong (Wylie-transliteration: ´bras ljongs), which means "valley of rice",[18] while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means '"the hidden valley of rice".[19] According to the folklore, after establishing Rabdentse as his new capital Bhutia king Tensung Namgyal built a palace and asked his Limbu Queen to name it. The Lepcha people, the original inhabitants of Sikkim, called it Nye-mae-el, meaning "paradise".[19] In historical Indian literature, Sikkim is known as Indrakil, the garden of the war god Indra.[20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Sikkim
Afrikaans: Sikkim
አማርኛ: ሲኪም
العربية: سيكيم
অসমীয়া: ছিক্কিম
asturianu: Sikkim
azərbaycanca: Səkkəm
বাংলা: সিক্কিম
Bân-lâm-gú: Sikkim
беларуская: Сікім
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сыкім
भोजपुरी: सिक्किम
Bikol Central: Sikkim
български: Сиким
བོད་ཡིག: འབྲས་ལྗོངས།
bosanski: Sikkim
brezhoneg: Sikkim
català: Sikkim
Cebuano: Sikkim
čeština: Sikkim
Cymraeg: Sikkim
dansk: Sikkim
Deutsch: Sikkim
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިއްކީމް
eesti: Sikkim
Ελληνικά: Σικκίμ
español: Sikkim
Esperanto: Sikimo
euskara: Sikkim
فارسی: سیکیم
Fiji Hindi: Sikkim
français: Sikkim
Gaeilge: Sikkim
galego: Sikkim
ગુજરાતી: સિક્કિમ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Sikkim
한국어: 시킴 주
हिन्दी: सिक्किम
hornjoserbsce: Sikim
hrvatski: Sikkim
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সিকিম
Bahasa Indonesia: Sikkim
íslenska: Sikkim
italiano: Sikkim
עברית: סיקים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಕ್ಕಿಂ
Kapampangan: Sikkim
ქართული: სიკიმი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: سککم
Kiswahili: Sikkim
لۊری شومالی: سیکیم
Latina: Sikkim
latviešu: Sikima
lietuvių: Sikimas
magyar: Szikkim
македонски: Сиким
Malagasy: Sikkim
മലയാളം: സിക്കിം
मराठी: सिक्किम
მარგალური: სიკიმი
Bahasa Melayu: Sikkim
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sikkim
монгол: Сикким
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆစ်ကင်ပြည်နယ်
Nederlands: Sikkim
नेपाली: सिक्किम
नेपाल भाषा: सिक्किम
日本語: シッキム州
нохчийн: Сикким
Nordfriisk: Sikkim
norsk: Sikkim
norsk nynorsk: Sikkim
occitan: Sikkim
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସିକିମ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੱਕਮ
پنجابی: سکم
پښتو: سيکيم
polski: Sikkim
português: Siquim
română: Sikkim
русский: Сикким
संस्कृतम्: सिक्किमराज्यम्
Scots: Sikkim
shqip: Sikkim
සිංහල: සිකිම්
Simple English: Sikkim
slovenčina: Sikkim
српски / srpski: Сиким
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sikkim
suomi: Sikkim
svenska: Sikkim
Tagalog: Sikkim
தமிழ்: சிக்கிம்
తెలుగు: సిక్కిం
тоҷикӣ: Сикким
ತುಳು: ಸಿಕ್ಕಿಂ
Türkçe: Sikkim
українська: Сіккім
اردو: سکم
Tiếng Việt: Sikkim
文言: 錫金
Winaray: Sikkim
Yorùbá: Sikkim
粵語: 錫金
中文: 锡金邦
डोटेली: सिक्किम