Sikhism

Sikhism əm/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi[3] (Sikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of India around the end of the 15th century.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] It is one of the youngest of the major world religions and the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion.[11] The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[12][13][14] In the early 21st century, there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.[15]

Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539),[16] and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.[17][18][19] Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.[20][21]

The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God).[22][23] Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib),[24] that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life.[25] Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will".[26] Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms to be mutually coexistent.[27]

Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675) – were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers after they refused to convert to Islam.[28][29] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion,[28][30] with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.[31][32] The Khalsa was founded by the last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh.

Sikh terminology

The majority of Sikh scriptures were originally written in the Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India.[33][34] Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means students or disciples of the Guru. The anglicised word 'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana (to learn), and Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning".[35][36]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sikhisme
Alemannisch: Sikhismus
العربية: سيخية
aragonés: Sikhismo
arpetan: Siquismo
অসমীয়া: শিখ ধৰ্ম
asturianu: Sikhismu
azərbaycanca: Siqhizm
تۆرکجه: سیکیزم
বাংলা: শিখধর্ম
Bân-lâm-gú: Sikh-kàu
башҡортса: Сикхизм
беларуская: Сікхізм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сыкхізм
भोजपुरी: सिख धर्म
български: Сикхизъм
bosanski: Sikizam
brezhoneg: Sikhegezh
буряад: Сикх шажан
català: Sikhisme
Cebuano: Sihismo
čeština: Sikhismus
Cymraeg: Siciaeth
dansk: Sikhisme
Deutsch: Sikhismus
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިކުންގެދީން
eesti: Sikhism
Ελληνικά: Σιχισμός
español: Sijismo
Esperanto: Sikismo
estremeñu: Sijismu
euskara: Sikhismo
فارسی: آیین سیک
Fiji Hindi: Sikhism
føroyskt: Sikhisma
français: Sikhisme
Frysk: Sikhisme
furlan: Sikhisim
galego: Sikhismo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sikh-kau
한국어: 시크교
हिन्दी: सिख धर्म
hrvatski: Sikhizam
Ilokano: Sikhismo
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: শিখ লিচেত
Bahasa Indonesia: Sikhisme
interlingua: Sikhismo
íslenska: Síkismi
italiano: Sikhismo
עברית: סיקיזם
Jawa: Sikhisme
Kabɩyɛ: Sɩkɩsmɩ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಖ್ ಧರ್ಮ
ქართული: სიქიზმი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: سِکھ مَت
қазақша: Сикхалар
Kiswahili: Kalasinga
Ladino: Sihizmo
Latina: Sichismus
latviešu: Sikhisms
lietuvių: Sikhizmas
Limburgs: Sikhisme
Lingua Franca Nova: Sicisme
magyar: Szikhizmus
मैथिली: सिख धर्म
македонски: Сикизам
മലയാളം: സിഖ് മതം
मराठी: शीख धर्म
მარგალური: სიქიზმი
مصرى: سيخ
Bahasa Melayu: Sikhisme
Mirandés: Sikhismo
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆစ်ခ်ဘာသာ
Nederlands: Sikhisme
नेपाली: सिख धर्म
नेपाल भाषा: सिख धर्म
日本語: シク教
нохчийн: Сикхизм
Norfuk / Pitkern: Siikism
norsk: Sikhisme
norsk nynorsk: Sikhismen
occitan: Sikhisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sikhizm
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿੱਖੀ
پنجابی: سکھ مت
پښتو: سکيزم
Patois: Siikizim
Picard: Sikime
Piemontèis: Sikhism
polski: Sikhizm
português: Siquismo
română: Sikhism
русиньскый: Сікгізм
русский: Сикхизм
саха тыла: Сикхизм
संस्कृतम्: सिखमतम्
Scots: Sikhism
shqip: Sikizmi
Simple English: Sikhism
slovenčina: Sikhizmus
slovenščina: Sikhizem
Soomaaliga: Siikhismi
کوردی: سیکیزم
српски / srpski: Сикизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sikizam
svenska: Sikhism
Tagalog: Sikhismo
татарча/tatarça: Сикхчылык
Türkçe: Sihizm
українська: Сикхізм
اردو: سکھ مت
Tiếng Việt: Sikh giáo
Võro: Sikhism
West-Vlams: Sjiisme
Winaray: Sikhismo
吴语: 锡克教
ייִדיש: סיקהיזם
粵語: 錫克教
žemaitėška: Sikėzmos
中文: 锡克教