Siege of Jerusalem (1099)

Siege of Jerusalem
Part of the First Crusade
Counquest of Jeusalem (1099).jpg
Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders (19th-century artist impression)
DateJune 7 – July 15, 1099
Location
ResultDecisive Crusader victory[1]
Territorial
changes
Belligerents
CrusadersFatimid Caliphate
Commanders and leaders
Godfrey of Bouillon
Raymond IV of Toulouse
Robert II of Normandy
Robert II of Flanders
Eustace III of Boulogne
Tancred of Hauteville
Gaston IV of Béarn
Iftikhar ad-Dawla Surrendered
Strength
1,200-1,300 Knights
11,000-12,000 Infantry
[2][3][4]
Sizeable Garrison[5]
400 Elite Cavalrymen[4][6]
Casualties and losses
3,000-4,000[7]

Modern estimates:
Unknown, garrison killed and thousands of inhabitants massacred


Arab sources:

30,000-70,000[8]

The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. The climax of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders take Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate and laid the foundations for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Background

After the successful siege of Antioch in June 1098, the Crusaders remained in the area for the rest of the year. The papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy had died, and Bohemond of Taranto had claimed Antioch for himself. Baldwin of Boulogne remained in Edessa, captured earlier in 1098. There was dissent among the princes over what to do next; Raymond of Toulouse, frustrated, left Antioch to capture the fortress at Ma'arrat al-Numan in the Siege of Maarat. By the end of the year, the minor knights and infantry were threatening to march to Jerusalem without them. Eventually, on January 13, 1099 Raymond began the march south, down the coast of the Mediterranean, followed by Robert of Normandy and Bohemond's nephew Tancred, who agreed to become his vassals.

13th-century miniature depicting the siege

On their way, the Crusaders besieged Arqa but failed to capture it and abandoned the siege on May 13. Fatimids had attempted to make peace, on the condition that the Crusaders do not continue towards Jerusalem, but this was ignored; Iftikhar ad-Daula, the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem, was aware of the Crusaders' intentions. Therefore, he expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian inhabitants.[9] The further march towards Jerusalem met no resistance.

Other Languages
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Opsada Jerusalima (1099)