Sichuan

Sichuan Province
四川省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese四川省 (Sìchuān Shěng)
 • AbbreviationSC / or (pinyin: Chuān or Shǔ
Sichuanese: Cuan1 or Su2)
 • SichuaneseSi4cuan1 Sen3
Map showing the location of Sichuan Province
Map showing the location of Sichuan Province
Coordinates: 30°08′N 102°56′E / 30°08′N 102°56′E / 30.133; 102.933
Named forShort for 川峡四路 chuānxiá sìlù
literally "The Four Circuits
of the Rivers and Gorges",
referring to the four circuits during the Song dynasty
Capital
(and largest city)
Chengdu
Divisions21 prefectures, 181 counties, 5011 townships
Government
 • SecretaryPeng Qinghua
 • GovernorYin Li
Area[1]
 • Total485,000 km2 (187,000 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Highest elevation7,556 m (24,790 ft)
Population (2013)[2]
 • Total81,100,000
 • Rank4th
 • Density170/km2 (430/sq mi)
 • Density rank22nd
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan - 95%
Yi - 2.6%
Tibetan - 1.5%
Qiang - 0.4%
 • Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin (Sichuanese dialects), Khams Tibetan, Hakka Chinese
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC
Vehicle registration川A-Z
GDP (2017)CNY 3.70 trillion
USD 547.71 billion (6th)
 • per capitaCNY 44,651
USD 6,613 (22nd)
HDI (2016)0.780[3] (high) (23rd)
Websitewww.sichuan.gov.cn
Sichuan
Sichuan (Chinese characters).svg
"Sichuan" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese四川
PostalSzechwan
Literal meaningan abbreviation of "the four circuits of the Rivers and Gorges"
The four circuits consist of Yizhou, Lizhou, Zizhou, & Kuizhou.
Tibetan name
Tibetan སི་ཁྲོན་
Yi name
Yiꌧꍧ
syp chuo
Former names
Ba and Shu
Chinese

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 81 million.

In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu. Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the First Emperor's unification of China under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan. The area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During the Second World War, Chongqing served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China, making it the focus of Japanese bombing. It was one of the last mainland areas to fall to the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later. It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing Municipality was again separated from it in 1997.

The people of Sichuan speak a unique form of Mandarin, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming. The family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes; the native Sichuan pepper was supplemented by Mexican chilis during the Columbian Exchange to form modern Sichuan cuisine, whose dishes—including Kung Pao chicken and Mapo tofu—have become staples around the world.[citation needed]

Names

In Modern Chinese, the name Sichuan means "four rivers", and in folk etymology this is usually taken to mean the province's four major rivers: the Jialing, Jinsha, Min, and Tuo.[4] In fact, the name of the province is a contraction of the phrases Sì Chuānlù (, "Four River Circuits") and Chuānxiá Sìlù (川峡四路, "Four Circuits of Rivers and Gorges"), referring to the division of the existing imperial administrative circuit into four during the Northern Song dynasty.[5] In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has also been irregularly romanized as Szű-chuan and Szechuan.

In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan including the now separated Chongqing Municipality was known to the Chinese as Ba-Shu, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan Basin. Shu continues to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the Shu of the Three Kingdoms period, and Former Shu and Later Shu of the Ten Kingdoms period.

Other Languages
Acèh: Sichuan
Afrikaans: Sichuan
العربية: سيتشوان
asturianu: Sichuan
azərbaycanca: Sıçuan
বাংলা: সিছুয়ান
Bân-lâm-gú: Sù-chhoan-séng
беларуская: Сычуань
भोजपुरी: सिचुआन
български: Съчуан
Boarisch: Sichuan
brezhoneg: Sichuan
català: Sichuan
Cebuano: Sichuan Sheng
čeština: S’-čchuan
Cymraeg: Sichuan
dansk: Sichuan
Deutsch: Sichuan
eesti: Sichuan
Ελληνικά: Σετσουάν
español: Sichuán
Esperanto: Siĉuano
euskara: Sichuan
فارسی: سیچوآن
français: Sichuan
Gaeilge: Sichuan
Gaelg: Sichuan
galego: Sichuan
贛語: 四川
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Si-chhôn-sén
한국어: 쓰촨성
हिन्दी: सिचुआन
hrvatski: Sečuan
Bahasa Indonesia: Sichuan
interlingua: Sichuan
Ирон: Сычуань
íslenska: Sesúan
italiano: Sichuan
עברית: סצ'ואן
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಚುವಾನ್
Kapampangan: Sichuan
ქართული: სიჩუანი
Kiswahili: Sichuan
Kongo: Sichuan
Latina: Sichuan
latviešu: Sičuaņa
lietuvių: Sičuanas
magyar: Szecsuan
Malagasy: Sichuan
मराठी: स-च्वान
Bahasa Melayu: Sichuan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sé-chiŏng
монгол: Сычуань муж
Nederlands: Sichuan
日本語: 四川省
нохчийн: Сычуань
Nordfriisk: Sichuan
norsk: Sichuan
norsk nynorsk: Sichuan
occitan: Sichuan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sichuan
پنجابی: سیچوآن
polski: Syczuan
português: Sichuan
română: Sichuan
русский: Сычуань
саха тыла: Сычуань
Scots: Sichuan
sicilianu: Sichuan
Simple English: Sichuan
slovenčina: S’-čchuan
српски / srpski: Сичуан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sichuan
suomi: Sichuan
svenska: Sichuan
Tagalog: Sichuan
татарча/tatarça: Сычуань
Türkçe: Siçuan
українська: Сичуань
اردو: سیچوان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىچۈەن ئۆلكىسى
Vahcuengh: Swconh
vèneto: Sichuan
Tiếng Việt: Tứ Xuyên
walon: Sichouan
文言: 四川省
Winaray: Sichuan
吴语: 四川省
粵語: 四川
中文: 四川省