Shijiazhuang

Shijiazhuang

石家庄市

Shihkiachwang
Clockwise from top: Panoramic view near Huaite Building, far view of downtown Shijiazhuang, Hebei provincial museum, Gangnan reservoir, Shijiazhuang TV Tower.
Clockwise from top: Panoramic view near Huaite Building, far view of downtown Shijiazhuang, Hebei provincial museum, Gangnan reservoir,
Location of Shijiazhuang City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Shijiazhuang City jurisdiction in Hebei
Shijiazhuang is located in Hebei
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Coordinates: 38°04′N 114°29′E / 38°04′N 114°29′E / 38.067; 114.483
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
Municipal seatChang'an District
Government
 • Party SecretaryXing Guohui (邢国辉)
 • MayorDeng Peiran (邓沛然)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city15,848 km2 (6,119 sq mi)
 • Urban
283.72 km2 (109.54 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,240 km2 (860 sq mi)
Elevation
83 m (272 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Prefecture-level city10,784,600
 • Density680/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Urban
4,303,700
 • Urban density15,000/km2 (39,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
050000
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-01
Licence plate prefixes冀A
City FlowerRosa Chinensis
City Treewww.sjz.gov.cn
Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang (Chinese characters).svg
"Shíjiāzhuāng" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese石家庄
Traditional Chinese石家莊
Literal meaning"Shí Family Hamlet"

Shijiazhuang (Chinese: 石家庄, [ʂɻ̩̌.tɕjá.ʈʂwáŋ]) is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province.[1] Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 266 kilometres (165 mi) southwest of Beijing,[2] and it administers eight districts, two county-level cities, and 12 counties.

As of 2015 it had a total population of 10,701,600[3] with 4,303,700 in the central (or metro) area comprising the seven districts and the county of Zhengding largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate.[4] Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China.[5]

Shijiazhuang experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. The population of the metropolitan area has more than quadrupled in 30 years[citation needed] as a result of industrialization and infrastructural developments. From 2008 to 2011, Shijiazhuang implemented a three-year plan which concluded with the reorganization of the city resulting in an increase of green areas and new buildings and roads. A train station, airport and a subway system have been opened.[6]

Shijiazhuang is situated east of the Taihang Mountains, a mountain range extending over 400 km (250 mi) from north to south with an average elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,900 to 6,600 ft), making Shijiazhuang a place for hiking, outdoor trips and cycling.

History

In pre-Han times (i.e., before 206 BC), the site of the city of Shiyi in the state of Zhao was located in this area, and from Han (206 BC–AD 220) to Sui (581–618) times it was the site of a county seat with the same name. With the reorganization of local government in the early period of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the county was abolished. The name "Shijiazhuang" was first mentioned in 1535 on a stele of a local temple. Shijiazhuang was then little more than a local market town, subordinated to the flourishing city of Zhengding a few miles to the north.

The growth of Shijiazhuang into one of China's major cities began in 1905, when the BeijingWuhan (Hankou) railway reached the area, stimulating trade and encouraging local farmers to grow cash crops. Two years later the town became the junction for the new Shitai line, running from Shijiazhuang to Taiyuan, Shanxi. The connection transformed the town from a local collecting centre and market into a communications centre of national importance on the main route from Beijing and Tianjin to Shanxi, and later, when the railway from Taiyuan was extended to the southwest, to Shaanxi as well. The city also became the centre of an extensive road network.

Pre-World War II Shijiazhuang was a large railway town as well as a commercial and collecting centre for Shanxi and regions farther west and for agricultural produce of the North China Plain, particularly grain, tobacco, and cotton. By 1935 it had far outstripped Zhengding as an economic centre. At the end of World War II the character of the city changed when it took on an administrative role as the preeminent city in western Hebei, and developed into an industrial city. Some industries, such as match manufacturing, tobacco processing, and glassmaking, had already been established before the war.

On November 12, 1947, the city was captured by Communist forces. In 1948 the city, formerly known as Shímén (石門), was renamed Shijiazhuang.

Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from downtown Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to Beijing. Today, the area is a memorial site.[7]

After 1949 the industrialisation of the city gathered momentum. Its population more than tripled in the decade 1948–58. In the 1950s, the city experienced a major expansion in the textile industry, with large-scale cotton spinning, weaving, printing, and dyeing works. In addition there are plants processing local farm produce. In the 1960s it was the site of a new chemical industry, with plants producing fertilizer and caustic soda. Shijiazhuang also became an engineering base, with a tractor-accessory plant. There are important coal deposits at Jingxing and Huailu, now named Luquan, a few miles to the west in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains, which provide fuel for a thermal-generating plant supplying power to local industries.

In 1967, Tianjin was again carved out of Hebei, remaining a separate entity today, and thus the provincial capital was moved to Baoding. It was chaotic in the midst of the Cultural Revolution, and under the direction of Mao Zedong, in 1968, to "prepare for war and natural disasters", Shijiazhuang became the provincial capital.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Shijiazhuang
العربية: شيجياتشوانغ
asturianu: Shijiazhuang
Bân-lâm-gú: Chio̍h-ka-chng-chhī
беларуская: Шыцзячжуан
български: Шъдзяджуан
brezhoneg: Shijiazhuang
català: Shijiazhuang
Deutsch: Shijiazhuang
español: Shijiazhuang
Esperanto: Ŝiĝjaĝŭango
euskara: Shijiazhuang
français: Shijiazhuang
Gĩkũyũ: Shijiazhuang
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sa̍k-kâ-chông-sṳ
한국어: 스자좡시
հայերեն: Շիցզյաչժուան
Արեւմտահայերէն: Շիցզյաչժուան
hrvatski: Shijiazhuang
Bahasa Indonesia: Shijiazhuang
italiano: Shijiazhuang
kalaallisut: Shijiazhuang
Kapampangan: Shijiazhuang
ქართული: შიძიაჯუანი
Kiswahili: Shijiazhuang
Кыргызча: Шицзячжуан
Latina: Shijiazhuang
latviešu: Šidzjadžuana
lietuvių: Šidziadžuangas
magyar: Sicsiacsuang
Malagasy: Shijiazhuang
Māori: Shijiazhuang
Bahasa Melayu: Shijiazhuang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Siŏh-gă-cŏng
монгол: Шижяжуан
Nederlands: Shijiazhuang
日本語: 石家荘市
нохчийн: Шицзячжуан
norsk nynorsk: Shijiazhuang
پنجابی: شیجیاژوانگ
polski: Shijiazhuang
português: Shijiazhuang
Runa Simi: Shijiazhuang
русский: Шицзячжуан
Simple English: Shijiazhuang
српски / srpski: Шиђаџуанг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Shijiazhuang
svenska: Shijiazhuang
Tagalog: Shijiazhuang
Türkçe: Shijiazhuang
українська: Шицзячжуан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شىجياجۇاڭ شەھىرى
Vahcuengh: Swzgyahcuengh
Tiếng Việt: Thạch Gia Trang
文言: 石家莊市
Winaray: Shijiazhuang
吴语: 石家庄市
粵語: 石家莊
中文: 石家庄市