Shanxi

Shanxi Province
山西省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese山西省 (Shānxī Shěng)
 • AbbreviationSX / (pinyin: Jìn)
Map showing the location of Shanxi Province
Map showing the location of Shanxi Province
Coordinates: 37°42′N 112°24′E / 37°42′N 112°24′E / 37.7; 112.4
Named for shān - mountain
西 - west
"west of the Taihang Mountains"
Capital
(and largest city)
Taiyuan
Divisions11 prefectures, 119 counties, 1388 townships
Government
 • SecretaryLuo Huining
 • GovernorLou Yangsheng (acting)
Area[1]
 • Total156,000 km2 (60,000 sq mi)
Area rank19th
Highest elevation (Mount Wutai)3,058 m (10,033 ft)
Population (2014)[2]
 • Total36,500,000
 • Rank18th
 • Density230/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • Density rank19th
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan - 99.7%
Hui - 0.2%
 • Languages and dialectsJin, Zhongyuan Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-SX
GDP (2017)CNY 1.50 trillion
USD221.77 billion[3] (24st)
 • per capitaCNY 40,557
USD 6,007 (27th)
HDI (2014)0.738[4] (medium) (16th)
Websitewww.shanxigov.cn (Chinese)
Shanxi
Shanxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Shanxi" in Chinese characters
Chinese山西
PostalShansi
Literal meaning"West of the Mountains (Taihang)"

Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: About this sound Shānxī; postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" (pinyin: Jìn), after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.

The name Shanxi means "West of the Mountains", a reference to the province's location west of the Taihang Mountains.[5] Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north and is made up mainly of a plateau bounded partly by mountain ranges. The capital of the province is Taiyuan.

History

Pre-Imperial China

In the Spring and Autumn period (722–403 BC), the state of Jin was located in what is now Shanxi Province. It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC). By 221 BC, all of these states had fallen to the state of Qin, which established the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC).

Imperial China

The Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou (并州 Bīng Zhōu). During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439), several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi. They were followed by Northern Wei (386–534), a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, and which went on to rule nearly all of northern China.

The Tang Dynasty (618–907) originated in Taiyuan. During the Tang Dynasty and after, present day Shanxi was called Hédōng (河东), or "east of the (Yellow) river". Empress Wu Zetian, China's only female ruler, was born in Shanxi in 624.

During the first part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960), Shanxi supplied rulers of three of the Five Dynasties, as well as being the only one of the Ten Kingdoms located in northern China. Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi (commander) of Hedong, Li Cunxu, who overthrew the first of the Five Dynasties, Later Liang (907–923) to establish the second, Later Tang (923–936). Another jiedushi of Hedong, Shi Jingtang, overthrew Later Tang to establish the third of the Five Dynasties, Later Jin, and yet another jiedushi of Hedong, Liu Zhiyuan, established the fourth of the Five Dynasties (Later Han) after the Khitans destroyed Later Jin, the third. Finally, when the fifth of the Five Dynasties (Later Zhou) emerged, the jiedushi of Hedong at the time, Liu Chong, rebelled and established an independent state called Northern Han, one of the Ten Kingdoms, in what is now northern and central Shanxi.

Shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin, the third of the Five Dynasties, ceded a piece of northern China to the Khitans in return for military assistance. This territory, called The Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, included a part of northern Shanxi. The ceded territory became a major problem for China's defense against the Khitans for the next 100 years, because it lay south of the Great Wall.

The later Zhou, the last dynasty of the Five Dynasties period was founded by Guo Wei, a Han Chinese, who served as the Assistant Military Commissioner at the court of the Later Han which was ruled by Shatuo Turks. He founded his dynasty by launching a military coup against the Turkic Later Han Emperor, however his newly established dynasty was short lived and was conquered by the Song Dynasty in 960.

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056

In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. Later the Southern Song Dynasty abandoned all of North China, including Shanxi, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in 1127 after the Jingkang Incident of the Jin-Song wars.

The Mongol Yuan Dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Shanxi as a province. Shanxi only gained its present name and approximate borders during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) which were of the same landarea and borders as the previous Hedong Commandery that existed during the Tang Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911), Shanxi extended north beyond the Great Wall to include parts of Inner Mongolia, including what is now the city of Hohhot, and overlapped with the jurisdiction of the Eight Banners and the Guihua Tümed banner in that area.

Modern China

Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.

With the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Shanxi became part of the newly established Republic of China. During most of the Republic of China's period of rule over mainland China (1912–1949), the warlord Yan Xishan controlled Shanxi. Yan Xishan devoted himself to modernizing Shanxi and developing its resources during his reign over the province. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied much of the province after winning the Battle of Taiyuan. Shanxi was also a major battlefield between the Japanese and the Chinese communist guerrillas of the Eighth Route Army during the war. The soldiers of Shanxi province under Yan Xishan viciously fought against the invading Japanese, which impressed the Japanese to say that nowhere in China did people fight so heroically and bravely.[citation needed]

Right after the defeat of Japan, much of the Shanxi countryside became important bases for the communist People's Liberation Army in the ensuing Chinese Civil War. Yan had incorporated thousands of former Japanese soldiers into his own forces to fight against the communists, and these soldiers became part of his failed defense of Taiyuan against the People's Liberation Army in early 1949. Shanxi was eventually conquered by the communists, resulting in the warlord Yan Xishan's retreat to Taiwan Island. In September, Shanxi Provincial People's Government was established.

For centuries, Shanxi served as a center for trade and banking; the "Shanxi merchants" (晋商 jìnshāng) were once synonymous with wealth. The well-preserved city and UNESCO World Heritage site Pingyao shows many signs of its economic importance during the Qing dynasty. During modern times, coal mining is important to Shanxi's economy, however critics have complained of deplorable mine conditions.

Since 2004 the province have been plagued with labour safety issues, including a slave labour scandal involving children, causing significant civil unrest and national embarrassment, leading to reforms by the communist government.

Other Languages
Acèh: Shanxi
Afrikaans: Shanxi
العربية: شانشي
asturianu: Shanxi
বাংলা: শানশি
Bân-lâm-gú: Soaⁿ-sai-séng
беларуская: Шаньсі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Шаньсі
български: Шанси
brezhoneg: Shanxi
català: Shanxi
čeština: Šan-si
Cymraeg: Shanxi
dansk: Shanxi
Deutsch: Shanxi
eesti: Shanxi
español: Shanxi
Esperanto: Ŝanŝio
euskara: Shanxi
فارسی: شانشی
français: Shanxi
Gaeilge: Shanxi
Gaelg: Shanxi
贛語: 山西
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sân-sî
հայերեն: Շանսի
हिन्दी: शन्शी
hrvatski: Shanxi
Bahasa Indonesia: Shanxi
interlingua: Shanxi
italiano: Shanxi
עברית: שאנשי
Kapampangan: Shanxi
ქართული: შანსი
Kiswahili: Shanxi
Kongo: Shanxi
Latina: Xansia
latviešu: Šaņsji
lietuvių: Šansi
magyar: Sanhszi
Malagasy: Shanxi
मराठी: षान्शी
Bahasa Melayu: Shanxi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Săng-să̤
монгол: Шаньси муж
Nederlands: Shanxi
日本語: 山西省
нохчийн: Шаньси
Nordfriisk: Shanxi
norsk: Shanxi
norsk nynorsk: Shanxi
Novial: Shanxi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shansi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਾਨਸ਼ੀ
پنجابی: شانشی
polski: Shanxi
português: Shanxi
română: Shanxi
Runa Simi: Shanxi pruwinsya
русский: Шаньси
саха тыла: Шанси
Scots: Shanxi
Simple English: Shanxi
српски / srpski: Шанси
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Shanxi
suomi: Shanxi
svenska: Shanxi
Tagalog: Shanxi
தமிழ்: சான்சி
Türkçe: Şansi
українська: Шаньсі
اردو: شنسی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شەنشى ئۆلكىسى
Vahcuengh: Sanhsih
vèneto: Shanxi
Tiếng Việt: Sơn Tây (Trung Quốc)
文言: 山西省
Winaray: Shanxi
吴语: 山西省
粵語: 山西
中文: 山西省