Server (computing)

First WWW server located at CERN with its original sticker that says: "This machine is a server. DO NOT POWER IT DOWN!!"

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device.[1] Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.[2]

Client–server systems are today most frequently implemented by (and often identified with) the request–response model: a client sends a request to the server, which performs some action and sends a response back to the client, typically with a result or acknowledgement. Designating a computer as "server-class hardware" implies that it is specialized for running servers on it. This often implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many relatively simple, replaceable server components.

History

The use of the word server in computing comes from queueing theory,[3] where it dates to the mid 20th century, being notably used in Kendall (1953) (along with "service"), the paper that introduced Kendall's notation. In earlier papers, such as the Erlang (1909), more concrete terms such as "[telephone] operators" are used.

In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969),[4] one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of RFC 4,[5] contrasting "serving-host" with "using-host".

The 1.1.0) version reading:

SERVER n. A kind of DAEMON which performs a service for the requester, which often runs on a computer other than the one on which the server runs.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Rekenaarbediener
Alemannisch: Server
العربية: خادم (حوسبة)
azərbaycanca: Server
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэрвэр (апаратнае забесьпячэньне)
български: Сървър
bosanski: Server
català: Servidor
čeština: Server
dansk: Server
Deutsch: Server
eesti: Server
Ελληνικά: Εξυπηρετητής
español: Servidor
Esperanto: Servilo
euskara: Zerbitzari
galego: Servidor
한국어: 서버
हिन्दी: सर्वर
hrvatski: Poslužitelj
Bahasa Indonesia: Peladen
interlingua: Servitor
Ирон: Сервер
íslenska: Miðlari
italiano: Server
עברית: שרת
қазақша: Сервер
Kiswahili: Seva
latviešu: Serveris
lietuvių: Serveris
lingála: Mbɛ́ki
lumbaart: Server
magyar: Szerver
македонски: Опслужувач
Bahasa Melayu: Komputer pelayan
Mirandés: Serbidor
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆာဗာ (ကွန်ပျူတာ)
Nederlands: Server
日本語: サーバ
norsk: Server
norsk nynorsk: Tenarmaskin
occitan: Servidor
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Server
polski: Serwer
română: Server
sicilianu: Sirvituri
Simple English: Server
slovenčina: Server
slovenščina: Strežnik
کوردی: ڕاژەکار
српски / srpski: Server
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Server
suomi: Palvelin
svenska: Server
Tagalog: Serbidor
தமிழ்: வழங்கி
తెలుగు: పరిచారిక
українська: Сервер
Tiếng Việt: Máy chủ
吴语: 服务器
粵語: 伺服器
中文: 服务器