Serbia and Montenegro

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
Savezna Republika Jugoslavija
Савезна Република Југославија

State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006)
Državna Zajednica Srbije i Crnе Gore
Државна Заједница Србије и Црне Горе
1992–2006
Anthem
"Hej, Sloveni"
Хеј, Словени
(English: "Hey, Slavs")
CapitalBelgradea
LanguagesSerbo-Croatian
(1992–1997)
Serbian (1997–2006)
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional republic
President
 • 1992–1993Dobrica Ćosić
 • 1993–1997Zoran Lilić
 • 1997–2000Slobodan Milošević
 • 2000–2003Vojislav Koštunica
 • 2003–2006Svetozar Marović
Prime Minister
 • 1992–1993Milan Panić
 • 1993–1998Radoje Kontić
 • 1998–2000Momir Bulatović
 • 2000–2001Zoran Žižić
 • 2001–2003Dragiša Pešić
 • 2003–2006Svetozar Marović
History
 • Constitution27 April 1992
 • Established28 April 1992
 • UN membershipb1 November 2000
 • State union4 February 2003
 • Dissolution3 June 2006
Area
 • 2006102,350 km2 (39,520 sq mi)
Population
 • 2006 est.10,832,545 
     Density106/km2 (274/sq mi)
CurrencySerbia and Serbian parts of Kosovo
 • Yugoslav dinar (1992–2003)
 • Serbian dinar (2003–2006)
Montenegro and Albanian parts of Kosovoc
 • Yugoslav dinar (1992–1999)
 • Deutsche Mark (1999–2002)
 • Euro (2002–2006)
Internet TLD.yu
Calling code+381
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Serbia
Montenegro
Today part of Kosovod
 Montenegro
 Serbia
a.^ After 2003, no city was the official capital, but legislative and executive institutions remained located in Belgrade. Podgorica served as the seat of the Supreme Court.
b.^ Membership as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; ISO 3166-1 = CS; UTC offset = +1.
c.^ De facto currencies used in Montenegro and Albanian parts of Kosovo.
d.^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.

Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Srbija i Crna Gora / Србија и Црна Гора, SCG / СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[1] (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora / Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia or FRY; Savezna Republika Jugoslavija / Савезна Република Југославија),[2] a name which the union held until February 2003.

The state aspired to be recognized as the sole legal successor to Yugoslavia, but those claims were opposed by other former constituent republics. The United Nations also denied its request to take up Yugoslavia's membership.[3] Eventually, after the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević from power as president of the federation in 2000, the country rescinded those aspirations and accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. It re-applied for UN membership on 27 October and was admitted on 1 November 2000.[4]

The FRY was initially dominated by Slobodan Milošević as President of Serbia (1989–1997) and then President of Yugoslavia (1997–2000).[5] Milošević installed and forced the removal of several federal presidents (such as Dobrica Ćosić) and prime ministers (such as Milan Panić).[5] However, the Montenegrin government, initially enthusiastic supporters of Milošević, started gradually distancing themselves from his policies. That culminated in regime change in 1996, when his former ally Milo Đukanović reversed his policies, became leader of Montenegro's ruling party and subsequently dismissed former Montenegrin leader Momir Bulatović, who remained loyal to the Milošević government. As Bulatović was given central positions in Belgrade from that time (as federal Prime Minister), Đukanović continued to govern Montenegro and further isolated it from Serbia. Thus from 1996 to 2006 Montenegro and Serbia were only nominally one country—governance at every feasible level was conducted locally, in Belgrade for Serbia and in Podgorica for Montenegro.

A loose union, Serbia and Montenegro were united only in certain realms, such as defence. The two constituent republics functioned separately throughout the period of the Federal Republic, and continued to operate under separate economic policies, as well as using separate currencies (the euro was the only legal tender in Montenegro). On 21 May 2006, the Montenegrin independence referendum was held, and 55.5% of voters voted in favour of independence. The state union came to an end after Montenegro's formal declaration of independence on 3 June 2006, and Serbia's formal declaration of independence on 5 June. After the dissolution, Serbia became the legal successor of the union, while the newly independent Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organizations.

Etymology

Even when Serbia and Montenegro was known officially as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (from 1992 to 2003), some nations, such as the United States, had referred to it as Serbia and Montenegro[6] as their governments viewed its claim to Yugoslavia's successorship as illegitimate.[7]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Serbien-Montenegro
azərbaycanca: Serbiya və Monteneqro
Bân-lâm-gú: Serbia kap Montenegro
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сэрбія і Чарнагорыя
Bahasa Indonesia: Serbia dan Montenegro
македонски: Србија и Црна Гора
Bahasa Melayu: Serbia dan Montenegro
Nedersaksies: Servië-Montenegro
norsk nynorsk: Serbia og Montenegro
Plattdüütsch: Serbien un Montenegro
Simple English: Serbia and Montenegro
slovenščina: Srbija in Črna gora
српски / srpski: Србија и Црна Гора
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srbija i Crna Gora
Tiếng Việt: Serbia và Montenegro