Second Triumvirate

Top: Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right) portrayed on 41 BC Roman aureus issued to honor the Second Triumvirate.
Bottom: Lepidus (left) and Octavian (right) portrayed on denarii. Both coins are inscribed "III VIR R P C", abbreviating "tresviri rei publicae constituendae" (One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic).[1][better source needed]

The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC. The Triumvirate existed for two five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC to 33 BC. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate,[2][3] the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.

Origin and nature

Octavian, despite his youth, extorted from the Senate the post of suffect consul (consul suffectus) for 43 BC.[4][better source needed] He had been warring with Antony and Lepidus in upper Italia, but in October 43 BC the three agreed to unite and seize power and so met near Bononia (now Bologna).[5][6]

This triumvirate of new leaders was established in 43 BC as the Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae Consulari Potestate (Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, abbreviated as III VIR RPC). Where the first triumvirate was essentially a private agreement, the second was embedded in the constitution formally joining Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus in shared rule over Rome.[7] The only other office which had ever been qualified "for confirming the Republic" was the dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla; the only limit on the powers of the Triumvirate was the five-year term set by law.[citation needed]

A historical oddity of the Triumvirate is that it was, in effect, a three-man directorate with dictatorial powers; it included Antony, who as consul in 44 BC had obtained a lex Antonia that abolished the dictatorship and expunged it from the Republic's constitutions.[citation needed] As had been the case with both Sulla and Julius Caesar during their dictatorships, the members of the Triumvirate saw no contradiction between holding a supraconsular office and the consulate itself simultaneously.[citation needed][8]

Division of Roman Territories at Different Timepoints.[original research?]
At the foundation of the Triumvirate (43 BC).[inconsistent][citation needed]
After the Treaty of Brundisium (40 BC).[inconsistent][citation needed]

In 44 BC, Lepidus' possession of the provinces of Hispania and Narbonese Gaul was confirmed, and he agreed to hand over 7 legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius for eastern Roman territory; in the event of defeat, Lepidus' territories would provide a fall-back position.[according to whom?][citation needed] Antony retained Cisalpine Gaul and hegemony over Gaul itself, and Octavian held Africa and was given nominal authority over Sicily and Sardinia.[citation needed][9] According to historian Richard Weigel, Octavian's share at this stage was "practically humiliating"; all the most important provinces went to Antony and Lepidus, though transfer of Lepidus' legions to Octavian meant that Lepidus was "effectively eliminating himself as an equal partner" in future.[10])

Other Languages
беларуская: Другі трыумвірат
Esperanto: Dua triumviraro
Bahasa Indonesia: Triumvirat Kedua
interlingua: Secunde triumvirato
Nederlands: Tweede triumviraat
Simple English: Second Triumvirate
slovenčina: Druhý triumvirát
slovenščina: Drugi triumvirat
српски / srpski: Други тријумвират
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Drugi trijumvirat