Second Great Fire of London

Second Great Fire of London
Part of the Blitz
Air Raid Damage in Britain during the Second World War HU36220A.jpg
St Paul's Survives, an iconic photograph of the Second Great Fire of London showing St Paul's Cathedral illuminated by burning buildings
Location London, England
Coordinates 51°30′57″N 0°05′32″W / 51°30′57″N 0°05′32″W / 51.5157; -0.0921
Date 29–30 December 1940 (1940-12-29 – 1940-12-30)
6:15 pm – 4:00 am [1] (UTC+00:00)
Attack type
Air raid, mass murder
Deaths 160
Non-fatal injuries
250
Perpetrator Luftwaffe

The "Second Great Fire of London" is a name used at the time to refer to one of the most destructive air raids of the Blitz, over the night of 29–30 December 1940. For over three hours from 6:15 pm [1] over 24,000 high explosive bombs and 100,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. [2] [1] The raid and the subsequent fire destroyed many Livery Halls and City churches and gutted the medieval Great Hall of the City's Guildhall.

The largest continuous area of Blitz destruction anywhere in Britain occurred on this night, stretching south from Islington to the very edge of St Paul's Churchyard. The area destroyed was greater than that of the Great Fire of London in 1666, 274 years previously. The raid was timed to coincide with a particularly low tide on the River Thames, which made water difficult to obtain for fire fighting. Over 1,500 fires were started across London, with many joining up to form three major conflagrations which in turn caused a firestorm spreading the flames further and towards St Paul's Cathedral.

Prime Minister Winston Churchill urged that the Cathedral be saved at all costs. It was saved only by the dedication of the London firemen who kept the fire that was raging in St Paul's Churchyard away from the Cathedral, and of the volunteer firewatchers of the St Paul's Watch who fought to put out the incendiaries or firebombs on its roof. The 200 members of the St Paul's Watch were mainly recruited from the Royal Institute of British Architects who knew the vulnerabilities of the structure and where to target firefighting efforts.

More than 160 civilians died during that night, with many more dying of their injuries sustained in this raid in the days that followed; 14 firemen died fighting the fires and 250 were injured. [2] Buildings completely destroyed in the fire storm included 19 churches, 31 guild halls and all of Paternoster Row. Paternoster Row was the centre of the London publishing trade and an estimated 5 million books were lost in the fire. [3]

A famous photograph, St Paul's Survives, taken from the roof of the Daily Mail building by Herbert Mason shows the dome of St Paul's Cathedral rising above clouds of black smoke. The photograph was cropped for publication, with the original showing many more destroyed buildings in the foreground.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Lewis, Rhys (22 May 2017). "December 29, 1940: St Paul's stands defiant as second Great Fire of London rages". BT News. Retrieved 28 August 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "London in the Blitz: A Christmas under fire". BBC News. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  3. ^ "London Blitz – 29th December 1940". Iconic Photos. Retrieved 13 July 2011.