Second Chechen War

Second Chechen War
Part of the Chechen–Russian conflict
Chechnya9268.jpg
Russian artillery shells Chechen positions
near the village of Duba-Yurt in January 2000.
DateBattle phase: 26 August 1999 – May 2000[5]
Insurgency phase: June 2000 – 15 April 2009
(9 years, 7 months and 3 weeks)
LocationChechnya, parts of Dagestan, Ingushetia and Georgia. Terrorist incidents across country, mainly in Moscow and South Russia.
Result

Russian victory

Territorial
changes
Territorial integrity of the Russian Federation is preserved.
Belligerents

 Russian Federation

Georgia
(Border Clashes)
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
(1999–2007)
Caucasian Front
(2005–2007)
Caucasus Emirate
(2007–2009)
Foreign Mujahideen[1][2][3][4]
Commanders and leaders
Boris Yeltsin
(Until 31 December 1999)
Vladimir Putin
(After 31 December 1999)
Igor Sergeyev
Viktor Kazantsev
Gennady Troshev
Vladimir Boldyrev
Alexander Baranov
Anatoliy Serdyukov
Sergei Ivanov
Nikolai Patrushev
Valentin Korabelnikov
Anatoly Kvashnin
Yuri Baluyevsky
Akhmad Kadyrov 
Alu Alkhanov
Ramzan Kadyrov
Sergey Abramov
Mukhu Aliyev
Aslan Maskhadov 
Abdul Halim Sadulayev 
Dokka Umarov
Ilyas Akhmadov
Turpal-Ali Atgeriyev 
Isa Munayev
Akhmed Avtorkhanov 
Ibn al-Khattab 
Abu al-Walid 
Abu Hafs al-Urduni 
Muhannad 
Ali Taziev
Supyan Abdullayev
Shamil Basayev 
Ruslan Gelayev 
Salman Raduyev 
Sulim Yamadayev 
Rappani Khalilov 
Yassir al-Sudani 
Abdulla Kurd
Strength
~80,000 (in 1999)~22,000[6]–30,000[7]
(in 1999)
Casualties and losses
3,536–3,635 soldiers,[8][9] 2,364–2,572 Interior ministry troops,[10][11][12] 1,072 Chechen police officers[13][14] and 106 FSB and GRU operatives killed[15]
Total killed: 7,217–7,425*
14,113 militants killed (1999–2002)[16]
2,186 militants killed (2003–2009)[17]
Total killed: 16,299

Civilian casualties:
Estimate up to 25,000 killed and up to 5,000 disappeared in Chechnya (AI estimate)[18]
Estimate total number of casualties:
~80,000 killed in Chechnya (GfbV estimate),[19]
More in neighbouring regions,
40-45,000 civilians killed (Kramer),[20]
More than 600 killed during attacks in Russia proper.
Other estimates for civilian dead 150,000 to 250,000[21][22][23][24]



Total killed military/civilian: ~50,000–80,000

Others estimate~150,000–250,000
  • The Committee of soldiers' mothers group disputed the official government count of the number of war dead and claimed that 14,000 Russian servicemen were killed during the war from 1999 to 2005.[25]

Second Chechen War (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Russian: Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния) or officially (from Russian point of view) Counter-terrorist operations on territories of North Caucasian region (Russian: Контртеррористические операции на территории Северо-Кавказского региона[26]), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

On 9 August 1999, Islamist fighters from Chechnya infiltrated Russia's Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state and calling for a jihad until "all unbelievers had been driven out".[27] On 1 October, Russian troops entered Chechnya.[28][29] The campaign ended the de facto independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and restored Russian federal control over the territory.

During the initial campaign, Russian military and pro-Russian Chechen paramilitary forces faced Chechen separatists in open combat, and seized the Chechen capital Grozny after a winter siege that lasted from late 1999 until February 2000. Russia established direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000 and after the full-scale offensive, Chechen militant resistance throughout the North Caucasus region continued to inflict heavy Russian casualties and challenge Russian political control over Chechnya for several more years. Some Chechen separatists also carried out attacks against civilians in Russia. These attacks, as well as widespread human rights violations by Russian and separatist forces, drew international condemnation.

In mid-2000, the Russian government transferred certain military operations to pro-Russian Chechen forces. The military phase of operations was terminated in April 2002, and the coordination of the field operations were given first to the Federal Security Service and then to the MVD in the summer of 2003.

By 2009, Russia had severely disabled the Chechen separatist movement and large-scale fighting ceased. Russian army and interior ministry troops no longer occupied the streets. Grozny underwent reconstruction efforts and much of the city and surrounding areas were rebuilt quickly. Sporadic violence continues throughout the North Caucasus; occasional bombings and ambushes targeting federal troops and forces of the regional governments in the area still occur.[30][31]

On 15 April 2009, the government operation in Chechnya was officially over.[5] As the main bulk of the army was withdrawn, the burden of dealing with the ongoing low-level insurgency mainly fell on the shoulders of the local police force. Three months later the exiled leader of the separatist government, Akhmed Zakayev, called for a halt to armed resistance against the Chechen police force starting on 1 August and said he hoped that "starting with this day Chechens will never shoot at each other".[32]

The exact death toll from this conflict is unknown. Unofficial sources estimate a range from 25,000 to 50,000 dead or missing, mostly civilians in Chechnya. Russian casualties are over 5,200 (official Russian casualty figures)[33] and are about 11,000 according to the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers.[34]

Historical basis of the conflict

Russian Empire

Chechnya and the Caucasus region

Chechnya is an area in the Northern Caucasus which has constantly fought against foreign rule, including the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. The Russian Terek Cossack Host was established in lowland Chechnya in 1577 by free Cossacks who were resettled from the Volga to the Terek River. In 1783, Russia and the Georgian kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, under which Kartl-Kakheti became a Russian protectorate. To secure communications with Georgia and other regions of the Transcaucasia, the Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the Caucasus region, starting the Caucasus War in 1817. Russian forces first moved into highland Chechnya in 1830, and the conflict in the area lasted until 1859, when a 250,000-strong army under General Baryatinsky broke down the highlanders' resistance. Frequent uprisings in the Caucasus also occurred during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78.

Soviet Union

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Chechens established a short-lived Caucasian Imamate which included parts of Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia; there was also the secular pan-Caucasian Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.[35] The Chechen states were opposed[citation needed] by both sides of the Russian Civil War and most of the resistance was crushed by Bolshevik troops by 1922. Then, months before the creation of the Soviet Union, the Chechen Autonomous Oblast of the Russian SFSR was established. It annexed a part of territory of the former Terek Cossack Host. Chechnya and neighboring Ingushetia formed the Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936. In 1941, during World War II, a Chechen revolt broke out, led by Khasan Israilov. Chechens were accused by Joseph Stalin of aiding Nazi forces. In February 1944 Stalin deported all the Chechens and Ingush to the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs. Up to a quarter of these people died during the "resettlement."[36][37][38] In 1957, after the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev allowed the Chechens to return, and the Chechen republic was reinstated in 1958. Afterwards, the authority of the Soviet government gradually eroded.

First Chechen War

A Russian helicopter downed by Chechen militants near the capital Grozny, during the First Chechen War

During the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chechnya declared independence. In 1992, Chechen and Ingush leaders signed an agreement splitting the joint Chechen–Ingush republic in two, with Ingushetia joining the Russian Federation and Chechnya remaining independent. The debate over independence ultimately led to a small-scale civil war since 1992, in which the Russians supported the opposition forces against Dzhokhar Dudayev. Thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity (mostly Russians) fled the Chechen Republic and Chechnya's industrial production began failing after Russian engineers and workers fled or were expelled. The First Chechen War began in 1994, when Russian forces entered Chechnya to "restore constitutional order". Following nearly two years of brutal fighting, in which an estimated tens of thousands to more than 100,000 people died, and the 1996 Khasavyurt ceasefire agreement, the Russian troops were withdrawn from the republic.[39]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Другая расейска-чачэнская вайна
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang Chechnya II
slovenščina: Druga čečenska vojna
српски / srpski: Други чеченски рат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Drugi čečenski rat
татарча/tatarça: İkençe çeçen suğışı