Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BCE[1]

Scythia (UK: ə/, US: ə/;[2] Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians,[1][3][4] encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks. The Ancient Greeks gave the name Scythia (or Great Scythia) to all the lands north-east of Europe and the northern coast of the Black Sea.[5]

The Scythians – the Greeks' name for this initially nomadic people – inhabited Scythia from at least the 11th century BCE to the 2nd century CE.[6][full citation needed] In the seventh century B.C. the Scythians controlled large swaths of territory throughout Eurasia, from the Black Sea to the borders of China.[7]Its location and extent varied over time, but it usually extended farther to the west and significantly farther to the east than is indicated on the map.[8]

Scythia was a loose nomadic empire that originated as early as 8th century BCE. Little is known of them and their rulers. The most detailed western description is by Herodotus. He may not have travelled in Scythia and there is scholarly debate as to the accuracy of his knowledge, but modern archaeological finds have confirmed some of his ancient claims and he remains one of the most useful writers on ancient Scythia. He says the Scythians' own name for themselves was "Scoloti".[9] Probably a part of Scythians became increasingly settled and wealthy on their western frontier with Greco-Roman civilization.


The region known to classical authors as Scythia included:

Other Languages
አማርኛ: እስኩቴስ
العربية: سكيثيا
aragonés: Scitia
asturianu: Escitia
Bân-lâm-gú: Scythia
беларуская: Скіфія
български: Скития
Cymraeg: Scythia
Ελληνικά: Σκυθία
español: Escitia
Esperanto: Skitio
euskara: Eszitia
فارسی: سکائستان
français: Scythie
한국어: 스키티아
Bahasa Indonesia: Skithia
Ирон: Скифи
italiano: Scizia
Latina: Scythia
latviešu: Skitija
Bahasa Melayu: Scythia
Nederlands: Scythië
norsk: Skytia
norsk nynorsk: Skytia
polski: Scytia
português: Cítia
română: Sciția
русский: Скифия
sicilianu: Scizzia
српски / srpski: Скитија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Skitija
suomi: Skyytia
svenska: Skytien
татарча/tatarça: Скифия
українська: Скіфія
Tiếng Việt: Scythia
中文: 斯基提亞
Lingua Franca Nova: Scitia