Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic
Gàidhlig
Pronunciation[ˈkaːlɪkʲ]
Native toUnited Kingdom
Canada
RegionScotland; Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia in Canada
EthnicityScottish people
Native speakers
57,000 fluent L1 and L2 speakers in Scotland (2011)[1]
87,000 people in Scotland reported having some Gaelic language ability in 2011.[1]
Early forms
Scottish Gaelic orthography (Latin script)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
gd
gla
ISO 639-3gla
scot1245[2]
Linguasphere50-AAA
ScotlandGaelic2001.gif
2001 distribution of Gaelic speakers in Scotland
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Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlɪkʲ] (About this soundlisten)) or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.

In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001. The highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. Only about half of speakers were fully fluent in the language.[1] Nevertheless, there are revival efforts, and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses.[3] Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken mainly in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the European Union or the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, and the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.

Nomenclature

Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may also be referred to simply as "Gaelic", pronounced k/ or k/ in English. "Gaelic" may also refer to the Irish language.[4]

Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis ("English") by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis ("Scottish"). From the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse ("Irish") and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis.[5][page needed] Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used.[6][page needed]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Skots-Gaelies
azərbaycanca: Şotland kelt dili
Bân-lâm-gú: So͘-kat-lân Gael-gí
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Шатляндзкая мова (кельцкая)
Boarisch: Gälisch
brezhoneg: Gouezeleg Skos
davvisámegiella: Gaelagiella
eesti: Gaeli keel
Esperanto: Skotgaela lingvo
Gàidhlig: Gàidhlig
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Scotland Gael-ngî
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Gaelik Skotlandia
íslenska: Skosk gelíska
Basa Jawa: Basa Galig
kernowek: Albanek
Limburgs: Sjots Gaelic
Lingua Franca Nova: Gailica (lingua)
lumbaart: Lengua scuzzesa
македонски: Шкотски јазик
مازِرونی: گالیک
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Scotland Gael-ngṳ̄
Nederlands: Schots-Gaelisch
Nedersaksies: Schots-Gaols
Nordfriisk: Skots-gälik
norsk nynorsk: Skotsk-gælisk
Nouormand: Êcôssais
پنجابی: سکاٹ گیلک
Runa Simi: Iskut kilta simi
Seeltersk: Skottisk Gälisk
Simple English: Scottish Gaelic language
slovenčina: Škótska gaelčina
slovenščina: Škotska gelščina
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Škotski gelski jezik
suomi: Gaeli
татарча/tatarça: Шотланд (гэль) теле
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شوتلاندىيە گائېل تىلى
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Gael Scotland
walon: Escôswès
West-Vlams: Schots Gaelic
Zazaki: İskoçki