Scottish English

Scottish English
Scottish English
Native toUnited Kingdom
Early forms
Latin (English alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
IETFen-scotland

Scottish English includes the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE).[1][2][3] Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools".[4] IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland.[5]

In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.[citation needed]

Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.[6]Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.[7][8]Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances.[9] Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner.[9] Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.[10]

Background

Scottish English resulted from language contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. The resulting shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for mergers by linguists unfamiliar with the history of Scottish English.[11] Furthermore, the process was also influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections and spelling pronunciations.[12] (See the section on phonology below.)

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