Saxony

Free State of Saxony
Freistaat Sachsen
State of Germany
Flag of Free State of Saxony
Flag
Coat of arms of Free State of Saxony
Coat of arms
Anthem: Sachsenlied (de)
Deutschland Lage von Sachsen.svg
Coordinates: 51°1′37″N 13°21′32″E / 51°1′37″N 13°21′32″E / 51.02694; 13.35889
CountryGermany
CapitalDresden
Government
 • BodyLandtag of the Free State of Saxony
 • Minister-PresidentMichael Kretschmer (CDU)
 • Governing partiesCDU / SPD
 • Bundesrat votes4 (of 69)
Area
 • Total18,415.66 km2 (7,110.33 sq mi)
Population (2017-12-31)[1]
 • Total4,081,308
 • Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeDE-SN
GDP (nominal)€113/ $125 billion (2015)[2]
GDP per capita€28,000/ $31,000 (2015)
NUTS RegionDED
Websitesachsen.de

Saxony (German: Sachsen, Upper Sorbian: Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony[4] (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩], Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig.

Saxony is the 10th-largest of Germany's 16 states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth-most populous, with 4 million people.

The history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, and twice a republic.

The area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds roughly to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Geography

Administration

Saxony is divided into 10 districts:

Map of 10 districts in Saxony (Sachsen)

  1. Bautzen (BZ)
  2. Erzgebirgskreis (ERZ)
  3. Görlitz (GR)
  4. Leipzig (L)
  5. Meißen (MEI) (Meissen)
  6. Mittelsachsen (FG)
  7. Nordsachsen (TDO)
  8. Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge (PIR)
  9. Vogtlandkreis (V)
10. Zwickau (Z)

In addition, three cities have the status of an urban district (German: kreisfreie Städte):

  1. Chemnitz (C)
  2. Dresden (DD)
  3. Leipzig (L)

Between 1990 and 2008, Saxony was divided into the three regions (Regierungsbezirke) of Chemnitz, Dresden, and Leipzig. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke. In 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen (de).

The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland and the Eastern Ore Mountains.

Rivers

Topography of Saxony

There are numerous rivers in Saxony. The Elbe is the most dominant one. Oder and Neiße define the border between Saxony and Poland. Other rivers include the Mulde and the Weiße Elster.

Largest cities

The largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate are listed below.[3] To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan-like region with Halle, known as Ballungsraum Leipzig/Halle.[5] The latter city is located just across the border of Saxony-Anhalt. Leipzig shares, for instance, an S-train system (known as S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland)[6] and an airport[7] with Halle.

Rank City Population
1 Leipzig 578,004
2 Dresden 548,834
3 Chemnitz 246,616
4 Zwickau 90,293
5 Plauen 65,147
6 Görlitz 56,330
7 Freiberg 41,415
8 Bautzen 39,551
9 Freital 39,260
10 Pirna 38,286
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Sakse
Alemannisch: Freistaat Sachsen
አማርኛ: ዛክስን
العربية: ساكسونيا
aragonés: Saxonia
asturianu: Saxonia
Avañe'ẽ: Sahoña
Aymar aru: Sachsen suyu
azərbaycanca: Saksoniya
تۆرکجه: زاکسن
বাংলা: জাখসেন
Bân-lâm-gú: Sachsen
башҡортса: Саксония
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Саксонія
български: Саксония
Boarisch: Saggsn
bosanski: Saksonija
brezhoneg: Saks
буряад: Саксони
català: Saxònia
Cebuano: Saxony
čeština: Sasko
corsu: Sassonia
Cymraeg: Sachsen
dansk: Sachsen
davvisámegiella: Sachsen
Deutsch: Sachsen
dolnoserbski: Sakska
eesti: Saksimaa
Ελληνικά: Σαξονία
español: Sajonia
Esperanto: Saksio
euskara: Saxonia
فارسی: زاکسن
français: Saxe (Land)
Gaeilge: An tSacsain
Gaelg: Sachsen
Gàidhlig: Sagsainn
galego: Saxonia
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Saxony
한국어: 작센주
հայերեն: Սաքսոնիա
हिन्दी: सैक्सोनी
hornjoserbsce: Sakska
Ido: Saxonia
Bahasa Indonesia: Sachsen
interlingua: Saxonia
Interlingue: Saxonia
íslenska: Saxland
italiano: Sassonia
עברית: סקסוניה
Basa Jawa: Sachsen
Kapampangan: Saxony
ქართული: საქსონია
kernowek: Sachsen
Kiswahili: Saksonia
Kongo: Sachsen
kurdî: Saksonya
Ladino: Sajonia
Latina: Saxonia
latviešu: Saksija
Lëtzebuergesch: Sachsen
lietuvių: Saksonija
Ligure: Sassonia
lumbaart: Sasonia
македонски: Саксонија
मराठी: जाक्सन
Bahasa Melayu: Sachsen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sachsen
монгол: Саксон
Nederlands: Saksen (deelstaat)
Nedersaksies: Saksen (dailstoat)
नेपाली: स्याक्सोनी
日本語: ザクセン州
Napulitano: Sassonia
Nordfriisk: Saksen (lönj)
norsk: Sachsen
norsk nynorsk: Sachsen
Novial: Saxonia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saksoniya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜ਼ਾਕਸਨ
Pälzisch: Sachsen
پنجابی: سیکسنی
Papiamentu: Sachsen
Piemontèis: Sassònia
Plattdüütsch: Sassen (Bundsland)
polski: Saksonia
português: Saxônia
Ripoarisch: Saxe
română: Saxonia
rumantsch: Saxonia
Runa Simi: Sachsen
Scots: Saxony
shqip: Saksonia
Simple English: Saxony
سنڌي: سئڪسني
slovenčina: Sasko
slovenščina: Saška
ślůnski: Saksůńijo
کوردی: ساکسۆنیا
српски / srpski: Саксонија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saksonija
svenska: Sachsen
Tagalog: Sahonya
தமிழ்: சாக்சனி
Türkçe: Saksonya
українська: Саксонія
اردو: زاکسن
vèneto: Sassonia
Tiếng Việt: Sachsen
Volapük: Saxän
Winaray: Sachsen
ייִדיש: זאקסן
Yorùbá: Saxony
粵語: 薩克遜
Zazaki: Saksonya