Saurischia

Saurischians
Temporal range:
Late TriassicPresent, 233.23–0 Ma Possible Middle Triassic record
Herrerasaurusskeleton.jpg
Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small), and Plateosaurus (skull), three early saurischians
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Clade:Dinosauria
Order:Saurischia
Seeley, 1888
Subgroups
Alwalkeria
Eusaurischia
Eoraptor
Herrerasauridae
Sauropodomorpha
Theropoda
Aves

Saurischia (ə/ RIS-kee-ə, meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek sauros (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint')[1] is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia). ‘Saurischia’ translates to lizard-hipped. In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders, based on their hip structure,[2] though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia as an unranked clade rather than an order.[3]

Description

All carnivorous dinosaurs (certain types of theropods) are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs. At the end of the Cretaceous Period, all saurischians except the birds became extinct in the course of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Birds, as direct descendants of one group of theropod dinosaurs, are a sub-clade of saurischian dinosaurs in phylogenetic classification.[4]

Saurischian dinosaurs are traditionally distinguished from ornithischian dinosaurs by their three-pronged pelvic structure, with the pubis pointed forward. The ornithischians' pelvis is arranged with the pubis rotated backward, parallel with the ischium, often also with a forward-pointing process, giving a four-pronged structure. The saurischian hip structure led Seeley to name them "lizard-hipped" dinosaurs, because they retained the ancestral hip anatomy also found in modern lizards and other reptiles. He named ornithischians "bird-hipped" dinosaurs because their hip arrangement was superficially similar to that of birds, though he did not propose any specific relationship between ornithischians and birds. However, in the view which has long been held, this "bird-hipped" arrangement evolved several times independently in dinosaurs, first in the ornithischians, then in the lineage of saurischians including birds (Avialae), and lastly in the therizinosaurians. This would then be an example of convergent evolution, avialans, therizinosaurians, and ornithischian dinosaurs all developed a similar hip anatomy independently of each other, possibly as an adaptation to their herbivorous or omnivorous diets.[5]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Saurischia
العربية: سحليات الورك
azərbaycanca: Kələzçanaqlılar
Bân-lâm-gú: Liông-pôaⁿ-lūi
беларуская: Яшчаратазавыя
brezhoneg: Saurischia
català: Saurisquis
Cebuano: Saurischia
čeština: Plazopánví
dansk: Saurischia
Ελληνικά: Σαυρίσχια
español: Saurischia
Esperanto: Saŭriskioj
euskara: Saurischia
français: Saurischia
galego: Saurischia
한국어: 용반목
hrvatski: Saurischia
Bahasa Indonesia: Saurischia
italiano: Saurischia
Lëtzebuergesch: Echsebeckesaurier
Nederlands: Saurischia
日本語: 竜盤類
norsk: Saurischia
occitan: Saurischia
português: Saurísquios
română: Saurischia
русский: Ящеротазовые
Scots: Saurischia
Simple English: Saurischia
српски / srpski: Saurischia
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saurischia
Tagalog: Saurischia
татарча/tatarça: Зауришийлар
українська: Ящеротазові
Volapük: Saurischia
Winaray: Saurischia
中文: 蜥臀目