Saud of Saudi Arabia

Saud of Saudi Arabia.jpg
King of Saudi Arabia
Reign9 November 1953 – 2 November 1964
Bay'ah9 November 1953
Prime MinisterHimself
Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
Reign9 October 1953 – 16 August 1954[1]
Reign21 December 1960 – 31 October 1962[1]
Born(1902-01-15)15 January 1902
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Died23 February 1969(1969-02-23) (aged 67)
Athens, Greece
Among others...
Full name
Saud bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud.
HouseHouse of Saud
FatherIbn Saud
MotherWadhah bint Hussein Al-Orair

Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (d/;[2] Arabic: سعود بن عبد العزيز آل سعودSu'ūd ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz Āl Su'ūd; 15 January 1902 – 23 February 1969) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After a period of internal tension in Saudi Arabia, he was forced from the throne and replaced by his brother Faisal.

Major events
1954The first five years plan announced by King Saud in his speech no. (6499/1/20/5)
1954The formation of the "Saudi Arabian Naval Transport Company'' in association with Aristotle Onassis.
1954The inauguration of the first naval ship "King Saud I" in Hamburg
1954The inauguration of the 1st Islamic Conference in Makkah
1955The first Saudi expansion of the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah
1955The 1st Saudi expansion of the Holy Mosque of Makkah
1956Saudi Arabia stopped exporting oil to Britain and France because of the Suez Crisis.
1956The rejection of King Saud to join "The Baghdad Pact" initiated by London.
1957King Saud support to Jordan during their political crisis which threatened to topple King Hussein's throne
1957King Saud strong diplomatic efforts at the UN denouncing the Israeli's attempts to obliterate the legal right of navigation in the Gulf of Aqaba
1957King Saud diplomatic efforts to mediate between Syria and Turkey
1957The USA causes the fall of oil price
1957Saudi Arabia became a member of the International Monetary Fund.
1957The establishment of the first university in Saudi Arabia (King Saud University)
1960A Royal Pronouncement to establish "The General Presidency for the Education of Girls"
1961Establishing OPEC
1962Establishing the Muslim League.
1962Abolishing Slavery by King Saud: A Royal Decree no (3/1/5) was announced with the ten points of reforms to abolish slavery.
1962Saud established Saudi Television.
1969King Saud died in Greece on 24 January.

Early life

Prince Saud was born on 15 January 1902 in Kuwait City.[3][4][5] The second son of Ibn Saud (also known as Abdulaziz),[6] he was born in the home of his grandfather Amir Abdul Rahman. They lived in Sikkat Inazza[where?] where the family was staying after their exile from Riyadh. When his father conquered Riyadh in 1902, Saud followed him with his mother and brothers.

Prince Saud had one full brother, Turki I,[7] and a sister, Mounira.[8] Their mother was Ibn Saud's second wife Wadhah bint Muhammad bin 'Hussein Al-Orair,[7] who belonged to the Qahtan tribe.[9][10]

At the age of five years old, he studied under Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al-Mufaireej. He studied Sharia and the Quran. He also learned archery and horse-riding amongst other things under the supervision of his father, as well as tribal lineages, and how to conduct peace agreements, and the art of wars, politics, diplomacy, and administration in the traditional Arabian ways. He accompanied his father on his many expeditions and, participated in several campaigns during the unification of the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, his father would entrust him from time to time with war-related or political, administrative and diplomatic missions. When King Abdulaziz appointed him as an heir to his throne in 1933, his advice to his son was that he should always be devoted to the service of the cause of the Almighty, aspire towards raising aloft the voice of Islam, strive hard to look after the concerns and affairs of his subjects, and be truthful in word and deed. He also advised him to incline towards and respect Muslim scholars, and keep their company and listen to their advice. The young Saud then pledged to his father that he would loyally abide by his words.[11]

Saud's first political mission was at the age of thirteen, leading a delegation to Qatar. The first battle he fought was at Jirrab in 1915, followed by one at Yatab in the same year, then Trubah in 1919.[12] In 1925, he stopped the Almahmal crisis in Makkah. He fought to stop the Ikhwan Revolt at Al Sebella in 1929.[13]

On 11 May 1933, he was appointed Crown Prince by his father.[14] The following year, Ibn Saud sent two military expeditions; one of them was led by Crown Prince Saud, who regained Najran and advanced secretly through the rugged mountains in the northwest part of Yemen.[15]

Following the end of the war with Yemen, Ibn Saud decided to encourage Saud to travel abroad. Accompanied by his father's adviser, Fuad Hamzah and Physician Dr. Medhat Sheikh el-Ard and some others, he visited: Transjordan, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt and Europe where he represented his father at the Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. Saud struck a warm friendship with the young King Ghazi of Iraq I, and earned plaudits from the Amir and later King Abdullah I of Jordan & Transjordan, who said to him: "in his character, he represented the choicest and purest of the traits and attributes of the Arabian Peninsula".

When a crisis erupted between the neighboring Persian Gulf States of Bahrain and Qatar, Saud also visited the former during December 1937 in order to help sort out their differences. This was followed by other visits to the until the eve of the Second World War.

After the war, when the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine appeared to be imminent, and leaders of the various Arab States met at Inshas in Egypt during 1946 in order to review the situation under the Chairmanship of King Farouk of Egypt, Saud was again selected by his father to represent him and his country, and participated in the adoption of the famous resolution that declared that: "The Palestinian cause is the cause of all Arabs and not merely the Palestinians". In 1947, Saud visited the United States and met with President Harry S. Truman, and also met with leaders in Britain, France, and Italy, in order to acquaint the policymakers with his father's views and the unacceptability of the infringement of the rights of the Palestinians.

Following Saud's visits, he concentrated on the first areas to be deemed in sore need of modernization and reform in view of increasing revenues and expenditures, these were the governance and handling the country's finances. After seeking advice and expert help from a number of friendly countries, primarily the USA, the Saudi riyal was linked to the United States Dollar and apart from structural, regulatory and procedural reforms within a revamped Ministry of Finance; a Central Bank under the name of the "Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency" ("SAMA") was established during 1952.

In keeping with universal practice, a proper annual state budget had first been issued during 1948 and following the establishment of the above central banking body, "SAMA", the third Saudi National Budget for the year 1952 complied with internationally observed standards. During this period, technical co-operation, primarily in the guise of the arrival of 35 experts during 1952 and aimed at generating planned economic growth within the Kingdom also received a major boost.

Apart from financial and administrative reforms, the report presented to Ibn Saud by Amir Saud, had commended the implementation of a whole range of vital infrastructural projects relating to the improvement of facilities for the Pilgrims, so important to the Kingdom from a religious and economic point of view, water supply, roads, broadcasting service, health, municipal affairs, port improvements, customs reorganization and higher education.

Plans for the paved road between Jeddah and Mecca had been announced by Saud during the Hajj of 1947, and the project for bringing water from the nearby Wadi Fatimah to Jeddah was also inaugurated by him shortly during November 1947. The Hajj of 1369 AH / 1950 AD witnessed the establishment of the Makkah college that was later to be expanded and renamed Umm al-Qura University.

Many of these reforms, along with the complete reorganisation of the system of public administration, through the establishment or restructuring of new or existing ministries and departments, and conceived and recognised as the "Crown Prince's Reforms", issued from his Office by a Decree under his seal on 19 October 1952, were destined to be developed, built upon and some even implemented after the demise of Ibn Saud on 9 November 1953 and during Saud's reign as King. The traditional Consultative Council in Makkah, the "Majlis-ash-Shura" or Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia was expanded on 17 November 1952.

Earlier, on 19 October 1953, Ibn Saud had also appointed Crown Prince Saud as Prime Minister for the first Saudi Cabinet. Before that, he appointed him as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Internal Security Units on 25 August 1953. During this period, the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, including the Air Force, were modernized on a large scale with American assistance. The Saudi Arabian Airlines fleet was also expanded by the purchase of four new 'Sky Masters' to primarily facilitate the transport of Pilgrims from their homes to the sites of pilgrimage and back, and also within the Kingdom. On 10 June 1953, Saud with the approval of his father also laid the foundation stone for the expansion and refurbishment of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina. Earlier on, following a visit, he had recommended to Ibn Saud the need for the adoption of this step, which the latter had sanctioned.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Saud
Bahasa Indonesia: Saud dari Arab Saudi
Lëtzebuergesch: Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz
lietuvių: Karalius Saudas
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saud ibn Abdulaziz as-Saud
Simple English: Saud of Saudi Arabia