Saturn (mythology)

Saturn
Titan of Capitol, wealth, agriculture, liberation, and time
0 Autel dédié au dieu Malakbêl et aux dieux de Palmyra - Musei Capitolini (1b).JPG
2nd-century AD Roman bas-relief depicting the god Saturn holding a scythe
SymbolSickle, scythe
TempleTemple of Saturn
FestivalsThe Saturnalia
Personal information
ConsortOps
ChildrenJupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Juno, Ceres and Vesta
ParentsCaelus and Terra
SiblingsJanus, Ops
Greek equivalentCronus

Saturn (Latin: Saturnus pronounced [saˈtʊr.nʊs]) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. In later developments, he also came to be a god of time. His reign was depicted as a Golden Age of plenty and peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury. In December, he was celebrated at what is perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. Saturn the planet and Saturday are both named after the god.

Mythology

The Roman land preserved the remembrance of a very remote time during which Saturn and Janus reigned on the site of the city before its foundation: the Capitol was called ‘'mons Saturnius.[1] The Romans identified Saturn with the Greek Cronus, whose myths were adapted for Latin literature and Roman art. In particular, Cronus's role in the genealogy of the Greek gods was transferred to Saturn. As early as Livius Andronicus (3rd century BC), Jupiter was called the son of Saturn.[2]

Saturn had two mistresses who represented different aspects of the god. The name of his wife Ops, the Roman equivalent of Greek Rhea, means "wealth, abundance, resources."[3] The association with Ops is considered a later development, however, as this goddess was originally paired with Consus.[4] Earlier was Saturn's association with Lua ("destruction, dissolution, loosening"), a goddess who received the bloodied weapons of enemies destroyed in war.[5]

Under Saturn's rule, humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labour in the "Golden Age" described by Hesiod and Ovid.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Saturnus
Ænglisc: Saturnus
беларуская: Сатурн (бог)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сатурн (міталёгія)
brezhoneg: Sadorn (doue)
čeština: Saturn (bůh)
Cymraeg: Sadwrn (duw)
dansk: Saturnus
eesti: Saturnus
Ελληνικά: Σατούρνους
Esperanto: Saturno (dio)
فارسی: ساترن
한국어: 사투르누스
Bahasa Indonesia: Saturnus (mitologi)
interlingua: Saturno (deo)
íslenska: Satúrnus (guð)
Kiswahili: Saturnus
Nederlands: Saturnus (god)
norsk nynorsk: Guden Saturn
română: Saturn (zeu)
shqip: Kroni
Simple English: Saturn (mythology)
slovenčina: Saturn (boh)
slovenščina: Saturn (bog)
српски / srpski: Сатурн (бог)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saturn (mitologija)
українська: Сатурн (міфологія)
Tiếng Việt: Saturnus
粵語: 撒頓