Satrap

Some of the Achaemenid empire satraps in their traditional costumes

Satraps (p/) were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.

The word "satrap" is also often used metaphorically in modern literature to refer to world leaders or governors who are heavily influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates.[1]

Etymology

The word satrap is derived via Latin satrapes from Greek satrápēs (σατράπης), itself borrowed from an Old Iranian *xšaθra-pā/ă-.[2] In Old Persian, which was the native language of the Achaemenids, it is recorded as xšaçapāvan (𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠, literally "protector of the province"). The Median form is reconstructed as *xšaθrapāwan-.[3] It is cognate with Sanskrit kṣatrapa (क्षत्रपम्), kṣatrapati, and kshatriya.

In the Parthian (language of the Arsacid Empire) and Middle Persian (the language of the Sassanian Empire), it is recorded in the forms šahrab and šasab, respectively.[4]

In modern Persian the descendant of xšaθrapāvan is shahrbān (شهربان‎), but the components have undergone semantic shift so the word now means "town keeper" (shahr [شهر‎] meaning "town" + bān [بان‎] meaning "keeper").

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Satraap
العربية: ساتراب
asturianu: Sátrapa
বাংলা: সত্রপ
беларуская: Сатрап
български: Сатрап
bosanski: Satrap
brezhoneg: Satrap
català: Sàtrapa
Cymraeg: Satrap
dansk: Satrap
Deutsch: Satrap
Ελληνικά: Σατράπης
español: Sátrapa
euskara: Satrapa
فارسی: ساتراپ
français: Satrape
galego: Sátrapa
հայերեն: Սատրապ
हिन्दी: सात्राप
hrvatski: Satrap
Ido: Satrapo
Bahasa Indonesia: Satrap
italiano: Satrapo
עברית: אחשדרפן
Basa Jawa: Satrap
kurdî: Satrap
Latina: Satrapes
latviešu: Satraps
magyar: Satrapa
македонски: Сатрап
Bahasa Melayu: Satrap
日本語: サトラップ
norsk: Satrap
norsk nynorsk: Satrap
occitan: Satrapa
پنجابی: ساتراپی
português: Sátrapa
română: Satrap
русский: Сатрап
Scots: Satrap
shqip: Satrap
Simple English: Satrap
slovenščina: Satrap
српски / srpski: Сатрап
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Satrap
Basa Sunda: Satrap
suomi: Satraappi
svenska: Satrap
Tagalog: Satrapa
татарча/tatarça: Satrap
тоҷикӣ: Сатрап
Türkçe: Satraplık
українська: Сатрап
Zazaki: Satrap