Santa Fe, New Mexico

Santa Fe
Capital of New Mexico
La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís
Flag of Santa Fe
Flag
Official seal of Santa Fe
Seal
Nickname(s): The City Different
Santa Fe is located in the US
Santa Fe
Santa Fe
Location within the United States
Santa Fe is located in North America
Santa Fe
Santa Fe
Location within North America
Santa Fe is located in Earth
Santa Fe
Santa Fe
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″W / 35°40′2″N 105°57′52″W / 35.66722; -105.96444
Country United States
State New Mexico
CountySanta Fe
Founded1610
Founded byPedro de Peralta
Named forFrancis of Assisi
Government
 • MayorAlan Webber (D)
 • City Council
Area
 • City37.4 sq mi (96.9 km2)
 • Land37.3 sq mi (96.7 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation7,199[1] ft (2,194 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City67,947
 • Estimate (2016)[3]83,875
 • Density1,800/sq mi (700/km2)
 • Metro144,170 (Santa Fe MSA)
1,146,049 (Albuquerque-Santa Fe-Las Vegas CSA)
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP codes87500-87599
Area code(s)505
FIPS code35-70500
GNIS feature ID0936823
Websitewww.santafenm.gov

Santa Fe (/ or /; Tewa: Oghá P’o'oge, Navajo: Yootó) is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Mexico and the fourth-largest city in the state. In addition to being the eponymous seat of Santa Fe County, it has approximately 83,875 inhabitants with a metropolitan area population of approximately 144,170. It is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. Due to its geographic location in Northern New Mexico, Santa Fe exhibits an alpine and dry steppe climate with pronounced forestry, various mountain ranges, and large plains, along its city limits. The city's subalpine land elevation is 7,199 feet above sea level, making it the third most highest city in elevation in the United States.[4][5] Due to its Spanish heritage, the city's name, "Santa Fe", is translated as "Holy Faith". It is jointly-eponymous with Santa Fe, Granada, Spain–both cities feature a castle, lion, and the Spanish imperial eagle on their official seals and flags.[6] Spanish culture is celebrated annually in Santa Fe, most notably with Fiestas de Santa Fe and the burning of Zozobra.

The area of Santa Fe has been continuously occupied since 900 BCE, originally inhabited by prehistoric Pueblo and Tanoan hunter-gatherers. Formal settlements spread in the early 1200s, making Santa Fe one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in the Western Hemisphere. Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate led an envoy into the city during the early 17th century as a part of Spain's larger effort to colonize the Americas. New Mexico's first colonial governor, Pedro de Peralta, designated Santa Fe the capital of the Kingdom of New Mexico in 1610, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. The full name of the City of Santa Fe (Spanish: Ciudad de Santa Fe) as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís ("The Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi").[7][8] As the capital of the New Spain, Santa Fe de Nuevo México served as the seat of power for the Spanish Empire in North America.[4][9] It briefly gained independence from 1680 to 1692 after Pueblo peoples intermittently revolted. After Diego de Vargas reconquered the city for New Spain in the late 1690s, it remained under Spanish rule for more than a century. While Spain lost Santa Fe to Mexico in 1810, Mexico suppressed a Texan raid on Santa Fe in 1841 only to lose it to the United States five years later. Santa Fe was designated the capital of the U.S. State of New Mexico in 1912.

As the cultural and economic centre of New Mexico, the city exerts substantial influence in the state's politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts. The Governor's Mansion, New Mexico Legislature, and Supreme Court of New Mexico are all headquartered in Santa Fe. It is home to the New Mexico Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, and Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, operating the International Folk Art Market and Santa Fe Indian Market during the summers. While it possesses modern infrastructure, the city has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighborhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Cathedral Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, San Miguel Mission, and Santa Fe Plaza. In addition to numerous parks and woodlands, the Santa Fe National Forest is within its northern city limits. Known for its robust art market, Santa Fe has the third-largest art market value in the United States, maintaining nearly 250 art galleries and brokers.[10] The city was designated a UNESCO World Creative City in 2005 for its efforts in cultural preservation.[10]

History

Spain and Mexico

Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate colonized Santa Fe in 1598; it became province of New Spain in 1600 and served as the Spanish Empire's North American seat of power throughout the 1700s.[4][9]

The area of Santa Fe was originally occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west; the village was called Oghá P’o'oge in Tewa[11] The Tanoans and other Pueblo peoples settled along the Santa Fe River for its water and transportation. The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway.[9] As of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers.[12] Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain.[9] Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, however, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi.[9] In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has almost constantly remained,[13] making it the oldest state capital in the United States.[9]

The flag of Santa Fe features the same royal color standards as well as the castle, lion, and the Spanish imperial eagle of the flag of Spain.[14]

Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.[9] Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810.[9] It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Louis, Missouri. When the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.[9] The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis.[9] The city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain.[9] When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was easily captured by the Mexican army.[9]

United States

With the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the U.S. officially took over Santa Fe as one of its capital cities.

In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U.S. officially gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the [lack of] quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule.[15] In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado in 1853. During his leadership, he traveled to France, Rome, Tucson, Los Angeles, St. Louis, New Orleans, and Mexico City. He built the Santa Fe Saint Francis Cathedral and shaped Catholicism in the region until his death in 1888.[16] As part of the New Mexico Campaign of the Civil War, General Henry Sibley occupied the city, flying the Confederate flag over Santa Fe for a few days in March 1862. Sibley was forced to withdraw after Union troops destroyed his logistical trains following the Battle of Glorieta Pass. The Santa Fe National Cemetery was created by the federal government after the war in 1870 to inter the Union soldiers who died fighting there.

On October 21, 1887, Anton Docher, "The Padre of Isleta", went to New Mexico where he was ordained as a priest in the St Francis Cathedral of Santa Fe by Bishop Jean-Baptiste Salpointe. After a few years serving in Santa Fe,[17] Bernalillo and Taos,[18] he moved to Isleta on December 28, 1891. He wrote an ethnological article published in The Santa Fé Magazine in June 1913, in which he describes early 20th century life in the Pueblos.[19] As railroads were extended into the West, Santa Fe was originally envisioned as an important stop on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. But as the tracks were constructed into New Mexico, the civil engineers decided that it was more practical to go through Lamy, a town in Santa Fe County to the south of Santa Fe. A branch line was completed from Lamy to Santa Fe in 1880.[20] The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad extended the narrow gauge Chili Line from the nearby city of Española to Santa Fe in 1886.[21]

Neither were sufficient to offset the negative effects of Santa Fe having been bypassed by the main railroad route. It suffered gradual economic decline into the early 20th century. Activists created a number of resources for the arts and archaeology, notably the School of American Research, created in 1907 under the leadership of the prominent archaeologist Edgar Lee Hewett. In the early 20th century, Santa Fe became a base for numerous writers and artists. The first airplane to fly over Santa Fe was piloted by Rose Dugan, carrying Vera von Blumenthal as passenger. Together the two women started the development of the Pueblo Indian pottery industry, helping native women to market their wares. They contributed to the founding of the annual Santa Fe Indian Market. In 1912, New Mexico was admitted as the United States of America's 47th state, with Santa Fe as its capital.

20th century

U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt visited Santa Fe in 1903, nine years before New Mexico reached statehood.

In 1912, when the town's population was approximately 5,000 people, the city's civic leaders designed and enacted a sophisticated city plan that incorporated elements of the contemporary City Beautiful movement, city planning, and historic preservation. The latter was particularly influenced by similar movements in Germany. The plan anticipated limited future growth, considered the scarcity of water, and recognized the future prospects of suburban development on the outskirts. The planners foresaw conflicts between preservationists and scientific planners and set forth the principle that historic streets and structures should be preserved and that new development must be in harmony with the city's character.[22] After the mainline of the railroad bypassed Santa Fe, it lost population. However, artists and writers, as well as retirees, were attracted to the cultural richness of the area, the beauty of the landscapes, and its dry climate. Local leaders began promoting the city as a tourist attraction. The city sponsored architectural restoration projects and erected new buildings according to traditional techniques and styles, thus creating the Santa Fe Style. Edgar L. Hewett, founder and first director of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, was a leading promoter. He began the Santa Fe Fiesta in 1919 and the Southwest Indian Fair in 1922 (now known as the Indian Market). When Hewett tried to attract a summer program for Texas women, many artists rebelled, saying the city should not promote artificial tourism at the expense of its artistic culture. The writers and artists formed the Old Santa Fe Association and defeated the plan.[23]

During World War II, the federal government ordered a Japanese American internment camp to be established. Beginning in June 1942, the Department of Justice arrested 826 Japanese-American men after the attack on Pearl Harbor; they held them near Santa Fe, in a former Civilian Conservation Corps site that had been acquired and expanded for the purpose. Although there was a lack of evidence and no due process, the men were held on suspicion of fifth column activity. Security at Santa Fe was similar to a military prison, with twelve-foot barbed wire fences, guard towers equipped with searchlights, and guards carrying rifles, side arms and tear gas.[24] By September, the internees had been transferred to other facilities—523 to War Relocation Authority concentration camps in the interior of the West, and 302 to Army internment camps. The Santa Fe site was used next to hold German and Italian nationals, who were considered enemy aliens after the outbreak of war.[25] In February 1943, these civilian detainees were transferred to DOJ custody. The camp was expanded at that time to take in 2,100 men segregated from the general population of Japanese American inmates. These were mostly Nisei and Kibei who had renounced their U.S. citizenship when asked to sign a loyalty oath that had confusing language, saying the person agreed to "give up loyalty to the Japanese emperor." Men born in America who had never identified with the emperor were insulted, especially as they were being asked to enroll in the armed forces while their Japanese-born parents were interned in camps. and other "troublemakers" from the Tule Lake Segregation Center.[24] In 1945, four internees were seriously injured when violence broke out between the internees and guards in an event known as the Santa Fe Riot. The camp remained open past the end of the war; the last detainees were released in mid 1946. The facility was closed and sold as surplus soon after.[25] The camp was located in what is now the Casa Solana neighborhood.[26]

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Santa Fe (New Mexico)
беларуская: Санта-Фэ
corsu: Santa Fe
Cymraeg: Santa Fe
Diné bizaad: Yootó
estremeñu: Santa Fe
euskara: Santa Fe
हिन्दी: साण्टा फे
Bahasa Indonesia: Santa Fe, New Mexico
עברית: סנטה פה
kurdî: Santa Fe
latviešu: Santafē
Ligure: Santa Fe
मराठी: सांता फे
norsk: Santa Fe
پنجابی: سانٹا فے
саха тыла: Санта Фе
संस्कृतम्: सान्टा फ़े
Simple English: Santa Fe, New Mexico
کوردی: سانتا فێ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Santa Fe, New Mexico
தமிழ்: சாந்தா பே
Taqbaylit: Santa Fe
Tiếng Việt: Santa Fe, New Mexico
žemaitėška: Santa Fė