San Luis Potosí

San Luis Potosí
Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí
State
Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí
Flag of San Luis Potosí
Flag
Official seal of San Luis Potosí
Seal
State of San Luis Potosí within Mexico
State of San Luis Potosí within Mexico
Coordinates: 22°36′N 100°26′W / 22°36′N 100°26′W / 22.600; -100.433
Country Mexico
Capital San Luis Potosí
Largest City San Luis Potosí
Municipalities 58
Admission December 22, 1823 [1]
Order 6th
Government
 •  Governor Juan Manuel Carreras López PRI
Area [2]
 • Total 61,137 km2 (23,605 sq mi)
  Ranked 15th
Highest elevation [3] 3,180 m (10,430 ft)
Population (2015) [4]
 • Total 2,717,820
 • Rank 19th
 • Density 44/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Density rank 20th
Demonym(s) Potosino (a)
Time zone CST ( UTC−6)
 • Summer ( DST) CDT ( UTC−5)
Postal code 78-79
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-SLP
HDI Increase 0.726 high Ranked 23rd
GDP US$ 22,825,212.99 th [a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was $281,040,000 thousand of pesos in 2012, [5] amount corresponding to $22,825,212.99 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.32 pesos (value of May 21, 2012). [6]

San Luis Potosí (Spanish pronunciation:  [san ˈlwis potoˈsi]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí ( Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.

It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by 8 other Mexican states, making it the state with the most borders with other neighboring states. The northern borders are with Nuevo León and Coahuila; the northeastern ones with Tamaulipas; the eastern ones with Veracruz; the southern ones with Hidalgo, Querétaro, and Guanajuato; and the northwestern one with Zacatecas.

In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Ciudad Valles, Matehuala, Rioverde, and Tamazunchale.

History

In pre-Columbian times the territory now occupied by the state of San Luis Potosí contained the cultural areas of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica. Its northern and western-central areas were inhabited by the Otomi and Chichimeca tribes. These indigenous groups were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Although most natives died during the Spanish settlements, huasteco groups still live, along with pame and náhuatl although their numbers are significantly small.

View of San Luis Potosí by Carl Nebel

In 1592, gold and silver deposits were discovered which triggered the establishment of the state. Spanish miners established the first town known as “San Luis de Mezquitique”, modern location of the capital San Luis Potosí. This led to the first mayor being appointed, Juan de Oñate.

The State was given the name "San Luis Rey", King Saint Louis, in honor of Louis IX of France, and "Potosi" because the wealth of the state compared to the rich silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Settlers hoped of rivaling the Bolivian mine wealth, but this was never truly accomplished. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Franciscans, Augustinians, and Jesuits arrived in the area and settled, then began to build churches and buildings, many of which are still standing and have been turned into museums and universities.

In mid-1821, after the Independence of Mexico, General Jose Antonio Echavarri intimidated and threatened the Mayor and the City Council to surrender the city of San Luis to the Army of the Three Guarantees of Iturbide(Ejercito de las Tres Garantias de Iturbide), who at the time, was emperor of Mexico. They submitted to his demand, as there was no way to resist, and thus proclamation of Independence of San Luis Potosí was declared. The first Constitution of San Luis Potosí was then written on October 16, 1826, and this was in effect until 1835 when Congress proclaimed it centralist. At this point, local legislatures disappeared and state governors were appointed by the central government. This situation lasted until the promulgation of the 1857 Constitution.

The state participation in the Mexican–American War in the years of 1846-1847 gave it the name "San Luis de la Patria", Saint Louis of the Motherland, for haven contributed important leaders and ideas during the struggle with the United States. During the Reform War, state involvement was very prominent, and during the French Intervention in 1863, the city of San Luis Potosí became the capital of the country under the order of President Benito Juárez.

During the regime of Maximilian, San Luis became an important location. The city was held by the Imperialists until late 1866. In that year the telegraph line was opened between San Luis Potosí and Mexico City, which opened up communication lines and helped begin the industrialization of the state.

Other Languages
aragonés: San Luis Potosí
Bân-lâm-gú: San Luis Potosí Chiu
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сан-Люіс-Патосі (штат)
български: Сан Луис Потоси
Esperanto: San Luis Potosí
Kapampangan: San Luis Potosí
latviešu: Sanluisa Potosi
Bahasa Melayu: San Luis Potosí
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: San-Luis-Potosi
Simple English: San Luis Potosí
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: San Luis Potosí
Tsetsêhestâhese: San Luis Potosí
Tiếng Việt: San Luis Potosí