San Jose, California

San Jose, California
City of San José
SJ skyline at night horizontal.jpg
USA-San Jose-De Anza Hotel-3.jpg
USA-San Jose-Bank of Italy-5 (cropped).jpg
USA-San Jose-City Hall-Rotunda-3 (cropped).jpg
Downtown San Jose (30001966530).jpg
Valencia Hotel, Santana Row (cropped).jpg
Mount Hamilton (Winter, Early 2019) (cropped).jpeg
Flag of San Jose, California
Flag
Official seal of San Jose, California
Seal
Motto(s): 
The Capital of Silicon Valley
Shown within Santa Clara County
Shown within Santa Clara County
San Jose is located in California
San Jose
San Jose
Location within California
San Jose is located in the United States
San Jose
San Jose
Location within the United States
San Jose is located in North America
San Jose
San Jose
Location within North America
Coordinates: 37°20′N 121°54′W / 37°20′N 121°54′W / 37.333; -121.900 Santa Clara
RegionSan Francisco Bay Area
MetroSan Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara
CSASan Jose-San Francisco-Oakland
Pueblo foundedNovember 29, 1777
Founded asPueblo de San José de Guadalupe
IncorporatedMarch 27, 1850[1]
Named forSaint Joseph
Government
 • TypeCouncil–manager[2]
 • BodySan Jose City Council
 • MayorSam Liccardo[3] (D)
 • Assemblymembers[4]
Area
 • City180.52 sq mi (467.55 km2)
 • Land177.51 sq mi (459.75 km2)
 • Water3.01 sq mi (7.80 km2)  1.91%
 • Urban
342.27 sq mi (741.03 km2)
 • Metro
2,694.61 sq mi (6,979 km2)
Elevation82 ft (25 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • City945,942
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
1,030,119
 • Rank3rd in California[9]
10th in the United States
 • Density5,776.3/sq mi (2,230.24/km2)
 • Urban
1,894,389 (29th)
 • Metro
1,998,463 (34th)
 • CSA
8,837,789 (5th)
Demonym(s)San Josean(s)
Josefino/a(s)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
ZIP codes
Area code(s)408/669
06-68000
www.sanjoseca.gov

San Jose[A] (/; Spanish: [saŋ xoˈse]; Spanish for "Saint Joseph"),[13] officially the City of San José,[B] is the economic, cultural and political center of Silicon Valley, and the largest city in Northern California (both by population and area). With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California (after Los Angeles and San Diego) and the tenth-most populous in United States.[14] Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles (466.1 km2). San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States.[15][16][17][18] San Jose is the main component of the San Jose–Sunnyvale–Santa Clara Metropolitan Statistical Area, with an estimated population of around 2 million residents in 2018.[19] It is also the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively.[20][21][22]

San Jose is a global city,[23] notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence,[24][25][26] Mediterranean climate, and extremely high cost of living.[27] San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural, political, and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley". San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zürich, Switzerland and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.[28] The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita.[29] With a median home price of $1,085,000,[30] San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey.[31][32][33][34] Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Broadcom, Samsung, Acer, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley.

Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias.[35] It then became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years later, San Jose became the state's first capital.[36] Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U.S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California.[37] By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy.[38]

History

Historical affiliations

Pre-Columbian period

The Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE.[39][40][41] The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family. With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José.[42]

Spanish period

A 1781 map of the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
The Luis María Peralta Adobe in San Pedro Square (built in 1797) is San Jose's oldest building.
San Jose celebrates the anniversary of its foundation every year at the Peralta Adobe.

California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time, California and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California (Spanish: Provincia de las California). For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and largely ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California finally surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition.[43]

In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's lightly populated and largely ungoverned borderlands. That year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission. First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, and Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, and a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís.[44]

San Jose was officially founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain.[45] San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network.[46] In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved approximately a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza (modern-day Plaza de César Chávez).[47]

In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias, officially split the province into two parts: Alta California (Upper California), which would eventually become a U.S. state, and Baja California (Lower California), which would eventually become two Mexican states.

Mexican period

San Jose became part of the First Mexican Empire in 1821, after Mexico's War of Independence was won against the Spanish Crown, and in 1824, part of the First Mexican Republic. With its newfound independence, and the triumph of the republican movement, Mexico set out to diminish the Catholic Church's power within Alta California by secularizing the California missions in 1833.[citation needed]

In 1824, In order to promote settlement and economic activity within sparsely populated California, the Mexican government began an initiative, for Mexican and foreign citizens alike, to settle unoccupied lands in California. Between 1833 and 1845, thirty-eight rancho land grants were issued in the Santa Clara Valley, 15 of which were located within modern day San Jose's borders. Numerous prominent historical figures were among those granted rancho lands in the Santa Valley, including James A. Forbes, founder of Los Gatos, California (granted Rancho Potrero de Santa Clara), Antonio Suñol, Alcalde of San Jose (granted Rancho Los Coches), and José María Alviso, Alcalde of San Jose (granted Rancho Milpitas).[citation needed]

In 1835, San Jose's population of approximately 700 people included 40 foreigners, primarily Americans and Englishmen. By 1845, the population of the pueblo had increased to 900, primarily due to American immigration. Foreign settlement in San Jose and California was rapidly changing Californian society, bringing expanding economic opportunities and foreign culture.[48]

By 1846, native Californios had long expressed their concern for the overrunning of California society by its growing and wealthy Anglo-American community.[49] On July 11, 1846, with the onset of the Mexican–American War, Captain Thomas Fallon conquered San Jose in the name of the Bear Flag Revolt for the California Republic, officially ending Mexican rule in Alta California.[citation needed]

American period

San Jose in 1875, when the Santa Clara Valley was one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world
Notre Dame High School's original campus in 1876. It was the first school accredited in California to give degrees to women.

By the end of 1847, the Conquest of California by the United States was complete, as the Mexican–American War came to an end.[40] In 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ceded California to the United States, as part of the Mexican Cession. On December 15, 1849, San Jose became the capital of the unorganized territory of California. With California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850, San Jose became the state's first capital.[50]

On March 27, 1850, San Jose was incorporated. It was incorporated on the same day as San Diego and Benicia; together, these three cities followed Sacramento as California's earliest incorporated cities.[51] Josiah Belden, who had settled in California in 1842 after traversing the California Trail as part of the Bartleson Party and later acquired a fortune, was the city's first mayor.[52] San Jose was briefly California's first state capital; legislators met in the city from 1849 to 1851. (Monterey was the capital during the period of Spanish California and Mexican California).[53] The first capitol no longer exists; the Plaza de César Chávez now lies on the site, which has two historical markers indicating where California's state legislature first met.[54]

In the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention, innovation, and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers. The City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honor. During this period, San Jose also became a center of innovation for the mechanization/industrialization of agricultural and food processing equipment.[55]

Though not affected as severely as San Francisco, San Jose also suffered significant damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Over 100 people died at the Agnews Asylum (later Agnews State Hospital) after its walls and roof collapsed,[56] and San Jose High School's three-story stone-and-brick building was also destroyed. The period during World War II was a tumultuous time. Japanese Americans primarily from Japantown were sent to internment camps, including the future mayor Norman Mineta. Following the Los Angeles zoot suit riots, anti-Mexican violence took place during the summer of 1943. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported San Jose's population as 98% white.[57]

The Bank of Italy Building, built in 1926, is the oldest skyscraper in Downtown San Jose.

As World War II started, the city's economy shifted from agriculture (the Del Monte cannery was the largest employer and closed in 1999[58]) to industrial manufacturing with the contracting of the Food Machinery Corporation (later known as FMC Corporation) by the United States War Department to build 1,000 Landing Vehicle Tracked.[59] After World War II, FMC (later United Defense, and currently BAE Systems) continued as a defense contractor, with the San Jose facilities designing and manufacturing military platforms such as the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and various subsystems of the M1 Abrams battle tank.[60]

IBM established its West Coast headquarters in San Jose in 1943 and opened a downtown research and development facility in 1952. Both would prove to be harbingers for the economy of San Jose, as Reynold Johnson and his team would later invent RAMAC, as well as the hard disk drive, and the technological side of San Jose's economy grew.[61]

The Ford Motor Company relocated its factory in Richmond to a new location in the suburb of Milpitas, called the San Jose Assembly Plant, which was one of the primary locations for manufacturing the Ford Mustang.[citation needed]

During the 1950s and 1960s, City Manager A. P. "Dutch" Hamann led the city in a major growth campaign. The city annexed adjacent areas, such as Alviso and Cambrian Park, providing large areas for suburbs. An anti-growth reaction to the effects of rapid development emerged in the 1970s, championed by mayors Norman Mineta and Janet Gray Hayes. Despite establishing an urban growth boundary, development fees, and the incorporations of Campbell and Cupertino, development was not slowed, but rather directed into already-incorporated areas.[59]

The 1928 San Jose annual Fiesta de las Rosas parade in Downtown

On April 3, 1979, the San Jose City Council adopted San José, with the diacritical mark on the "e", as the spelling of the city name on the city seal, official stationery, office titles and department names.[62] Also, by city council convention, this spelling of San José is used when the name is stated in mixed upper- and lower-case letters, but not when the name is stated only in upper-case letters. The accent reflects the Spanish version of the name, and the dropping of accents in all-capital writing was typical in Spanish. While San José is commonly spelled both with and without the acute accent over the "e", the city's official guidelines indicate that it should be spelled with the accent most of the time and sets forth narrow exceptions, such as when the spelling is in URLs, when the name appears in all-capital letters, when the name is used on social media sites where the diacritical mark does not render properly, and where San Jose is part of the proper name of another organization or business, such as San Jose Silicon Valley Chamber of Commerce, that has chosen not to use the accent-marked name.[63][64] The city's name without the accent can still be found in its 1965 Charter document, as amended, which formally chartered the municipality as City of San Jose.[65] Similarly, the city's website appears to use a mixture of both; for example, the "City of San José" in the text uses the mark but the "City of San Jose" logo image does not.[66]

San Jose's position in Silicon Valley triggered further economic and population growth. Results from the 1990 U.S. Census indicated that San Jose surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in the Bay Area for the first time.[37] This growth led to the highest housing-cost increase in the nation, 936% between 1976 and 2001.[67] Efforts to increase density continued into the 1990s when an update of the 1974 urban plan kept the urban growth boundaries intact and voters rejected a ballot measure to ease development restrictions in the foothills. Sixty percent of the housing built in San Jose since 1980 and over three-quarters of the housing built since 2000 have been multifamily structures, reflecting a political propensity toward Smart Growth planning principles.[68]

Other Languages
aragonés: San Jose
azərbaycanca: San-Xose (Kaliforniya)
تۆرکجه: سن‌خوزه
bamanankan: San José
Bân-lâm-gú: San Jose
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сан-Хасэ (Каліфорнія)
भोजपुरी: सैन होजे
eesti: San Jose
emiliàn e rumagnòl: San Jòśè
galego: San Jose
Bahasa Indonesia: San Jose, California
íslenska: San Jose
italiano: San Jose
қазақша: Сан Хосе
Kreyòl ayisyen: San Jose, Kalifòni
Lëtzebuergesch: San José (Kalifornien)
lietuvių: San Chozė
मराठी: सॅन होजे
Bahasa Melayu: San Jose, California
日本語: サンノゼ
norsk: San Jose
norsk nynorsk: San Jose i California
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: San Jose, Kaliforniya
پنجابی: سا ن جوز
Simple English: San Jose, California
slovenščina: San Jose, Kalifornija
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: San Jose, California
తెలుగు: శాన్ ఓసె
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: San Xosé
vepsän kel’: San Hose (Kalifornii)
Tiếng Việt: San Jose, California