Samarqand • سمرقند
Registan square Samarkand.jpg
Mosque Bibi Khanum (5).JPG
Gur-e Amir - Exterior views 998.JPG
Mausolées du groupe central (Shah-i-Zinda, Samarcande) (6009956484).jpg
Samarkand Shah-i Zinda general view.JPG
Clockwise from top:
Registan square, Bibi-Khanym Mosque, Gur-e-Amir, Shah-i-Zinda,
Official seal of Samarkand
Samarkand is located in Uzbekistan
Location in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 39°42′N 66°59′E / 39°42′N 66°59′E / 39.700; 66.983

Samarkand (d/; Uzbek language: Samarqand; Persian: سمرقند‎; Russian: Самарканд), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan, and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; some theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.[1]

By the time of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, when it was known by its Greek name of Marakanda.[2] The city was ruled by a succession of Iranian and Turkic rulers until the Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Today, Samarkand is the capital of Samarqand Region and Uzbekistan's second largest city.[3]

The city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque, rebuilt during the Soviet era, remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. Samarkand’s Registan square was the ancient centre of the city, and is bound by three monumental religious buildings. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood.[4] In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures.

Modern-day Samarkand is divided into two parts: the old city, and the new city developed during the days of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. The old city includes historical monuments, shops and old private houses, while the new city includes administrative buildings along with cultural centres and educational institutions.[5]

Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Mosque Bibi Khanum (5).JPG
Inscription2001 (25th Session)
Area1,123 ha
Buffer zone1,369 ha
Other Languages
Acèh: Samarkand
Afrikaans: Samarkand
አማርኛ: ሳማርቃንድ
العربية: سمرقند
aragonés: Sarmagant
asturianu: Samarcanda
azərbaycanca: Səmərqənd
تۆرکجه: سمرقند
বাংলা: সমরকন্দ
Bân-lâm-gú: Samarkand
башҡортса: Сәмәрҡәнд
беларуская: Самарканд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Самарканд
български: Самарканд
Boarisch: Samarkand
bosanski: Samarkand
brezhoneg: Samarkand
català: Samarcanda
čeština: Samarkand
Chi-Chewa: Samarkand
Cymraeg: Samarcand
dansk: Samarkand
Deutsch: Samarqand
eesti: Samarkand
Ελληνικά: Σαμαρκάνδη
español: Samarcanda
Esperanto: Samarkando
euskara: Samarkanda
فارسی: سمرقند
français: Samarcande
Frysk: Samarkand
galego: Samarcanda
Gĩkũyũ: Samarkand
한국어: 사마르칸트
հայերեն: Սամարղանդ
हिन्दी: समरक़न्द
hornjoserbsce: Samarkand
hrvatski: Samarkand
Bahasa Indonesia: Samarkand
íslenska: Samarkand
italiano: Samarcanda
עברית: סמרקנד
ქართული: სამარყანდი
қазақша: Самарқан
kurdî: Semerkand
Кыргызча: Самаркан
Latina: Maracanda
latviešu: Samarkanda
lietuvių: Samarkandas
magyar: Szamarkand
मैथिली: समरकन्द
македонски: Самарканд
മലയാളം: സമർഖണ്ഡ്
मराठी: समरकंद
مصرى: سمرقند
مازِرونی: سمرکنده
Bahasa Melayu: Samarkand
монгол: Самарканд
Nederlands: Samarkand (plaats)
нохчийн: Самарканд
norsk: Samarkand
norsk nynorsk: Samarkand
occitan: Samarcanda
олык марий: Самарканд
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Samarqand
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਮਰਕੰਦ
پنجابی: سمرقند
پښتو: سمرقند
polski: Samarkanda
português: Samarcanda
Qaraqalpaqsha: Samarqand
qırımtatarca: Samarqand
română: Samarkand
русский: Самарканд
Scots: Samarkand
Simple English: Samarkand
slovenčina: Samarkand
slovenščina: Samarkand
ślůnski: Samarkand
Soomaaliga: Samarqanda
کوردی: سەمەرقەند
српски / srpski: Самарканд
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Samarkand
suomi: Samarkand
svenska: Samarkand
татарча/tatarça: Сәмәрканд
тоҷикӣ: Самарқанд
Türkçe: Semerkant
Türkmençe: Samarkand
українська: Самарканд
اردو: سمرقند
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Semerqend
vepsän kel’: Samarkand
Tiếng Việt: Samarkand
walon: Samarcande
Winaray: Samarqand
吴语: 撒马尔罕
ייִדיש: סאמארקאנד
粵語: 撒馬爾罕
Zazaki: Semerqand
中文: 撒馬爾罕