Saint Peter

Saint

Peter
Apostle, pope, patriarch, and martyr
Saint Peter A33446.jpg
Saint Peter (c. 1468) by Marco Zoppo depicts Peter as an old man holding the Keys of Heaven and a book representing the gospel.
ChurchEarly Christian Great Church
See
InstalledAD 30[1]
Term endedbetween AD 64 and 68[2]
Successor
Orders
OrdinationAD 33
by Jesus Christ
Personal details
Birth nameShimon (Simeon, Simon)
Bornc. AD 1
Bethsaida, Gaulanitis, Syria, Roman Empire
Diedbetween AD 64 and 68 (aged 62–67)
Clementine Chapel, Vatican Hill, Rome, Italia, Roman Empire
ParentsJohn (or Jonah; Jona)
OccupationFisherman, clergyman
Sainthood
Feast day
Venerated inAll Christian denominations that venerate saints, Islam
CanonizedPre-Congregation
AttributesKeys of Heaven, Red Martyr, pallium, papal vestments, rooster, man crucified upside down, vested as an Apostle, holding a book or scroll, Cross of Saint Peter. Iconographically, he is depicted with a bushy white beard and white hair.
PatronagePatronage list
ShrinesSt. Peter's Basilica

Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; Hebrew: שמעון בר יונהShim'on bar Yona; Greek: Πέτρος, translit. Petros; Coptic: ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, translit. Petros; Latin: Petrus; r. AD 30;[1] died between AD 64 and 68),[2] also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon (n/, About this soundpronunciation ), according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope Gregory I called him repeatedly the "Prince of the Apostles".[3] According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "16:18 a special position in the Church. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome‍—‌or pope‍—‌and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church,[2] but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors (the primacy of the Bishop of Rome).

The New Testament indicates that Peter's father's name was John (or Jonah or Jona)[4] and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah,[5] was part of Jesus's inner circle,[6] thrice denied Jesus[7] and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, and preached on the day of Pentecost.[8]

According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery. Every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, and papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope, currently Pope Francis.

Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars generally reject the Petrine authorship of both.[9] The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name‍—‌the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, and Judgment of Peter‍—‌are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal, and are thus not included in their Bible canons.[10][11][12]

Names and etymologies

Calling of Peter and Andrew, Caravaggio

Peter's original name, as indicated in the New Testament, was "Simon" (Σίμων Simōn in Greek) or (only in Acts 15:14 and 2 Peter 1:1) "Simeon" (Συμεών in Greek). The Simon/Simeon variation has been explained as reflecting "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name".[13]

He was later given the name כֵּיפָא (Kepha) in Aramaic, which was rendered in Greek (by transliteration and the addition of a final sigma to make it a masculine word) as Κηφᾶς, whence Latin and English Cephas (9 occurrences in the New Testament);[14] or (by translation with masculine termination) as Πέτρος, whence Latin Petrus and English Peter (156 occurrences in the New Testament).[15]

The precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and, particularly in its application by Jesus to Simon, "precious stone" or "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character.[16] Both meanings, "stone" (jewel or hewn stone) and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Aramaic[17] and Syriac.[18] Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, ball, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; that in the Attic Greek petra denotes "grown rock, rocky range, cliff, grotto"; and that petros means "small stone, firestone, sling stone, moving boulder".[19]

The combined name Σίμων Πέτρος (Simon Peter) appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in English translation, Simon Cephas.[20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Petrus
Afrikaans: Simon Petrus
Alemannisch: Simon Petrus
العربية: بطرس
aragonés: Sant Pero
armãneashti: Sâm-Chetru
azərbaycanca: Müqəddəs Pyotr
বাংলা: সন্ত পিতর
Bân-lâm-gú: Pí-tek
беларуская: Пётр (апостал)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пётар (апостал)
български: Петър (апостол)
Boarisch: Petrus (Apostl)
བོད་ཡིག: པེ་ཏྲོ།
bosanski: Sveti Petar
brezhoneg: Pêr (abostol)
català: Sant Pere
Cebuano: Simón Pedro
čeština: Petr (apoštol)
Cymraeg: Sant Pedr
Deutsch: Simon Petrus
eesti: Peetrus
español: Simón Pedro
Esperanto: Sankta Petro
فارسی: پطرس
français: Pierre (apôtre)
Gaeilge: Naomh Peadar
galego: Pedro, papa
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pí-tet
한국어: 베드로
hrvatski: Sveti Petar
Ilokano: San Pedro
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সাও পেড্রো
Bahasa Indonesia: Simon Petrus
íslenska: Pétur postuli
italiano: Pietro apostolo
עברית: פטרוס
Basa Jawa: Simon Petrus
ქართული: წმინდა პეტრე
Kiswahili: Mtume Petro
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pyè
Latina: Petrus
Limburgs: Petrus
lingála: Sántu Petelo
Lingua Franca Nova: San Petro
lumbaart: San Peder
македонски: Апостол Петар
Malagasy: Petera
मराठी: सेंट पीटर
مازِرونی: پطرس
Bahasa Melayu: Santo Peter
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Báe̤k-dŏ̤-lṳ̆k
монгол: Гэгээн Петр
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စိန့်ပီတာ
Nāhuatl: Simón Pedro
Nederlands: Petrus
Nedersaksies: Petrus
日本語: ペトロ
norsk nynorsk: Apostelen Peter
occitan: Sant Pèir
Piemontèis: Simon-Pero
Plattdüütsch: Simon Petrus
português: São Pedro
română: Simon Petru
rumantsch: Simon Petrus
Runa Simi: Simun Piyru
русский: Апостол Пётр
Simple English: Saint Peter
slovenčina: Peter (apoštol)
slovenščina: Sveti Peter
ślůnski: Pyjter Apostoł
کوردی: پێترۆس
српски / srpski: Свети Петар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sveti Petar
svenska: Petrus
Tagalog: San Pedro
татарча/tatarça: Апостол Петр
Türkçe: Petrus
українська: Петро (апостол)
اردو: پطرس
vèneto: San Piero
Tiếng Việt: Thánh Phêrô
Winaray: San Pedro
吴语: 聖伯多祿
粵語: 聖伯多祿
Zazaki: Petrus
Zeêuws: Petrus