Location of Saint-Domingue
StatusColony of France
CapitalCap-Français (1711–1770)
Port-au-Prince (1770–1804)
Common languagesFrench, Haitian Creole
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (until 1792)
Republic (1792–1804)
• 1625–1643
Louis XIII
• 1643–1715
Louis XIV
• 1715–1774
Louis XV
• 1774–1792
Louis XVI
Head of State of the French Republic 
• 1792–1795
National Convention
• 1795–1799
French Directory
• 1799–1804
Napoléon Bonaparte
• First French settlement
January 1 1804
21,550 km2 (8,320 sq mi)
CurrencySaint-Domingue livre
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Captaincy General of Santo Domingo
First Empire of Haiti
Today part of Haiti

Saint-Domingue (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃.dɔ.mɛ̃ɡ]) was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti.

The French had established themselves on the western portion of the islands of Hispaniola and Tortuga by 1659. In the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, Spain formally recognized French control of Tortuga Island and the western third of the island of Hispaniola.[1][2]

In 1791, the slaves and some free people of color of Saint-Domingue began waging a rebellion against French authority. The rebels became reconciled to French rule following the abolition of slavery in the colony in 1793, although this alienated the island's dominant slave-holding class. France controlled the entirety of Hispaniola from 1795 to 1802, when a renewed rebellion began. The last French troops withdrew from the western portion of the island in late 1803, and the colony later declared its independence as Haiti, its indigenous name, the following year.


Spain controlled the entire island of Hispaniola from the 1490s until the 17th century, when French pirates began establishing bases on the western side of the island. The official name was La Española, meaning "The Spanish (Island)". It was also called Santo Domingo or San Domingo, after Saint Dominic.[3]

The western part of Hispaniola was neglected by the Spanish authorities, and French buccaneers began to settle first on the Tortuga Island, then on the northwest of the island: they called it le Grande Terre. Spain later ceded the entire western coast of the island to France, retaining the rest of the island, including the Guava Valley, today known as the Central Plateau.[3]

The French called their portion of Hispaniola Saint-Domingue, the French equivalent of Santo Domingo. The Spanish colony on Hispaniola remained separate, and eventually became the Dominican Republic, the capital of which is still named Santo Domingo.[3]

Other Languages
brezhoneg: Saint-Domingue
čeština: Saint-Domingue
español: Saint-Domingue
한국어: 생도맹그
Bahasa Indonesia: Saint-Domingue
italiano: Saint-Domingue
Nederlands: Saint-Domingue
português: Saint-Domingue
русский: Сан-Доминго
українська: Сан-Домінго