Süper Lig

Süper Lig
Süper Lig logo.svg
Founded1959[1]
First season1959
CountryTurkey
ConfederationUEFA
Number of teams18
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toTFF First League
Domestic cup(s)Turkish Cup
Turkish Super Cup
International cup(s)UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
Current championsGalatasaray (21st title)
(2017–18)
Most championshipsGalatasaray (21 titles)
Most appearancesOğuz Çetin (503 matches)[2]
Top goalscorerHakan Şükür (249 goals)[3]
TV partnersbeIN Sports Turkey
TRT (highlights only)
International:
beIN Sports, A+ Sport (Africa), Fox Sports Africa, SportKlub, CBC Sport, Kujtesa[4]
WebsiteSüper Lig
2018–19 Süper Lig

The Süper Lig (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈsypæɾ liɟ], Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system and is run by the Turkish Football Federation. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated from, and to, the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday.

The competition was initially established as the Millî Lig (National League) in 1959 - the first professional nationwide league competition held in Turkey.[5] The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level national competitions. The Süper Lig is currently 10th in the UEFA coefficient ranking of leagues based on club performances in European competitions over the last five years.[6] A total of 68 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only five have won the title so far: Galatasaray (21), Fenerbahçe (19), Beşiktaş (15), Trabzonspor (6), and Bursaspor (1).

History

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Turkish Empire).[7] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig (Süper Lig) in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul League and Millî Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana (1923), Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), İzmir (1923), Kayseri (1936), and Trabzon (1923), to name a few. The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the former Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[8] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues.[9] The National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition in Turkey. Started in 1937, the Millî Küme consisted of the strongest clubs from the Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir Leagues. The championship lasted until 1950.[10][11]

The Federation Cup was created in 1956 to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Millî Lig. Beşiktaş won both editions, and qualified for the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[12][13]

The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Millî Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (İstanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş (İstanbul), Beykoz (İstanbul), Fatih Karagümrük (İstanbul), Fenerbahçe (İstanbul), Galatasaray (İstanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe Gençlik (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir Province), and Vefa (Istanbul). Only five of those clubs are currently competing in the Super League: Ankaragücü, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, and Göztepe. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.[14]

The 2. Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the creation of a second division, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the seven-team group were promoted to the Millî Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1. Lig, the formerly titled 1. Lig was rebranded as Süper Lig.[15] The Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby is the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world. British Daily Mail ranked it second among the ten greatest football rivalries of all-time.[16]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Super Liqa (Türkiyə)
беларуская: Супер Ліга Турцыі
bosanski: Süper Lig
čeština: Süper Lig
dansk: Süper Lig
Deutsch: Süper Lig
eesti: Süper Lig
føroyskt: Süper Lig
galego: Süper Lig
한국어: 쉬페르리그
hrvatski: Süper Lig
Bahasa Indonesia: Liga Super Turki
italiano: Süper Lig
македонски: Турска Супер лига
Nederlands: Süper Lig
norsk: Süper Lig
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Turkiya oliy ligasi
polski: Süper Lig
română: Süper Lig
Scots: Süper Lig
Simple English: Süper Lig
Soomaaliga: Süper Lig
svenska: Süper Lig
Türkçe: Süper Lig
Zazaki: Liga supere