São Paulo

São Paulo
Município de São Paulo
Municipality of São Paulo
Montagem SP.png
Flag of São Paulo
Flag
Coat of arms of São Paulo
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle); Sampa; "Pauliceia"
Motto(s): 
"Non ducor, duco"  (Latin)
"I am not led, I lead"
Location in the state of São Paulo
Location in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo is located in Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo
Location in Brazil
São Paulo is located in South America
São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo (South America)
Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23°33′S 46°38′W / -23.550; -46.633
GDP (PPP)$477 billion[5]
GDP (per capita)$39,624[5]
WebsiteSão Paulo, SP

São Paulo (/; Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w̃ ˈpawlu] (About this soundlisten)) is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city (as listed by the GaWC) and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. The municipality is also the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, one of the most populous and wealthiest states in Brazil. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment.[8] The name of the city honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Sorocaba and the Paraíba Valley) created the São Paulo Macrometropolis,[9] a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[10]

Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere,[11] the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange. Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world,[12] representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP[13] and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil,[14] and has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005.[15] With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates.[16]

The metropolis is also home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural, economic and political influence both nationally and internationally. It is home to monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week and the ATP Brasil Open. The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world.[17][18] It is headquarters of the Brazilian television networks Band, Gazeta, and RecordTV.

São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado, Bixiga, and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is also home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews.[19] In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries.[20] People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead."[21] The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.

History

Early Indigenous Period

Historical affiliations
Portugal Portuguese Empire 1554–1815
Flag of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves.svg United Kingdom of PBA 1815–1822
 Empire of Brazil 1822–1889
Brazil Republic of Brazil 1889–present

The region of modern-day São Paulo, then known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim, Guaianas, and Guarani. Other tribes also lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region.

The region was divided in Caciquedoms (chiefdoms) at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Ipiranga, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Piratininga, Diadema, Cotia, Itapevi, Barueri, Embu-Guaçu etc...

Colonial period

Founding of São Paulo, 1913 painting by Antonio Parreiras
Courtyard of the College, Pátio do Colégio, in the Historic Center of São Paulo. At this location, the city was founded in 1554. The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in 1653.

The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. The Jesuit college of twelve priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí rivers.[22]

They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach (catechesis) the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba.[23]

The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus:[23]

The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college. It was then named "College of St. Paul Piratininga". The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups. It was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.[23]

For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived largely through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives. For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Piraiquê" (Piaçaguera today), because of frequent Indian raids along it.[23]

On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee of the Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital to the village of St. Paul, designating it the "Head of the captaincy." The new capital was established on April 23, 1683, with public celebrations.[23]

The Bandeirantes

The Monument to the Bandeiras commemorates the 17th-century bandeiras

In the 17th century, São Paulo was one of the poorest regions of the Portuguese colony. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves, as did other Portuguese colonists. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, brought attention and new settlers to São Paulo. The Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro was created on November 3, 1709, when the Portuguese crown purchased the Captaincies of São Paulo and Santo Amaro from the former grantees.[23]

Conveniently located in the country, up the steep Serra do Mar sea ridge when traveling from Santos, while also not too far from the coastline, São Paulo became a safe place to stay for tired travellers. The town became a centre for the bandeirantes, intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to enslave.[23]

Domingos Jorge Velho, a notable bandeirante.

The bandeirantes, which could be translated as "flag-bearers" or "flag-followers", organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown. Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The bandeirantes eventually became politically powerful as a group, and forced the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city of São Paulo in 1640. The two groups had frequently come into conflict because of the Jesuits' opposition to the domestic slave trade in Indians.[23]

On July 11, 1711, the town of São Paulo was elevated to city status. Around the 1720s, gold was found by the pioneers in the regions near what are now Cuiabá and Goiania. The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line to incorporate the gold regions.[23]

When the gold ran out in the late 18th century, São Paulo shifted to growing sugar cane. Cultivation of this commodity crop spread through the interior of the Captaincy. The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. At that time, the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast was constructed and named the Walk of Lorraine.[23]

Nowadays, the estate that is home to the Governor of the State of São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, is called the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Palace of Bandeirantes), in the neighbourhood of Morumbi.[23]

Imperial Period

Monument to Independence in Independence Park, located at the place where then-Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil

After Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1822, as declared by Emperor Pedro I where the Monument of Ipiranga is located, he named São Paulo as an Imperial City. In 1827, a law school was founded at the Convent of São Francisco, these days a part of the University of São Paulo. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city's growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St. Paul of Piratininga.[23]

The expansion of coffee production was a major factor in the growth of São Paulo, as it became the region's chief export crop and yielded good revenue. It was cultivated initially in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraíba Valley) region in the East of the State of São Paulo, and later on in the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto.[23]

From 1869 onwards, São Paulo was connected to the port of Santos by the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, nicknamed The Lady. In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. São Paulo became the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. Coffee was the economic engine for major economic and population growth in the State of São Paulo.[23]

In 1888, the "Golden Law" (Lei Áurea) was sanctioned by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, declaring abolished the slavery institution in Brazil. Slaves were the main source of labour in the coffee plantations until then. As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians, Japanese and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital. The region's first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese.[23]

Old Republican Period

Luz Station in 1900.

By the time Brazil became a republic on November 15, 1889, coffee exports were still an important part of São Paulo's economy. São Paulo grew strong in the national political scene, taking turns with the also rich state of Minas Gerais in electing Brazilian presidents, an alliance that became known as "coffee and milk", given that Minas Gerais was famous for its dairy produce.[23]

During this period, São Paulo went from regional center to national metropolis, becoming industrialized and reaching its first million inhabitants in 1928. Its greatest growth in this period was relative in the 1890s when it doubled its population. The height of the coffee period is represented by the construction of the second Estação da Luz (the present building) at the end of the 19th century and by the Paulista Avenue in 1900, where they built many mansions.[24]

Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. By the hands of some industrious families, including many immigrants of Italian and Jewish origin, factories began to arise and São Paulo became known for its smoky, foggy air. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Some examples of notable modernist artists are poets Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, artists Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Lasar Segall, and sculptor Victor Brecheret. The Modern Art Week of 1922 that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art.[23] In 1929, São Paulo won its first skyscraper, the Martinelli Building.[24]

The modifications made in the city by Antônio da Silva Prado, Baron of Duprat and Washington Luiz, who governed from 1899 to 1919, contributed to the climate Development of the city; Some scholars consider that the entire city was demolished and rebuilt at that time.

São Paulo's main economic activities derive from the services industry—factories are since long gone, and in came financial services institutions, law firms, consulting firms. Old factory buildings and warehouses still dot the landscape in neighborhoods such as Barra Funda and Brás. Some cities around São Paulo, such as Diadema, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, and Cubatão are still heavily industrialized to the present day, with factories producing from cosmetics to chemicals to automobiles.[23]

Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932

Group of aviators from São Paulo at Campo de Marte Airport in September 1932

This "revolution" is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil's history. On July 9, 1932, the population of São Paulo town rose against a coup d'état by Getúlio Vargas to take the presidential office. The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government. The 1930 coup also affected São Paulo by eroding the autonomy that states enjoyed during the term of the 1891 Constitution and preventing the inauguration of the governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes in the Presidency of the Republic, while simultaneously overthrowing President Washington Luís, who was governor of São Paulo from 1920 to 1924. These events marked the end of the Old Republic.[23]

The uprising commenced on July 9, 1932, after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.[23]

In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of the political elites of two other powerful states, (Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul), the politicians from São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo revolt was militarily crushed on October 2, 1932.[23]

In total, there were 87 days of fighting (July 9 to October 4, 1932—with the last two days after the surrender of São Paulo), with a balance of 934 official deaths, though non-official estimates report up to 2,200 dead, and many cities in the state of São Paulo suffered damage due to fighting.[23]

There is an obelisk in front of Ibirapuera Park that serves as a memorial to the young men that died for the MMDC. The University of São Paulo's Law School also pays homage to the students that died during this period with plaques hung on its arcades.[23]

Other Languages
Acèh: São Paulo
Afrikaans: São Paulo
Alemannisch: São Paulo
አማርኛ: ሳው ፓውሉ
Ænglisc: São Paulo
Аҧсшәа: Сан-Паулу
العربية: ساو باولو
aragonés: São Paulo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܣܐܘ ܦܐܘܠܘ
armãneashti: São Paulo
Avañe'ẽ: São Paulo
Aymar aru: San Pauluw
azərbaycanca: San-Paulu
تۆرکجه: سائو پائولو
bamanankan: São Paulo
বাংলা: সাও পাওলো
Bân-lâm-gú: São Paulo
башҡортса: Сан-Паулу
беларуская: Сан-Паўлу
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сан-Паўлу
भोजपुरी: साओ पालो
Bikol Central: São Paulo
български: Сао Пауло
Boarisch: São Paulo
བོད་ཡིག: སན་པའུ་ལོ་
bosanski: São Paulo
буряад: Сан-Паулу
català: São Paulo
Чӑвашла: Сан-Паулу
Cebuano: São Paulo
čeština: São Paulo
Chavacano de Zamboanga: São Paulo
Chi-Chewa: São Paulo
corsu: São Paulo
Cymraeg: São Paulo
dansk: São Paulo
davvisámegiella: São Paulo
Deitsch: São Paulo
Deutsch: São Paulo
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސައޮ ޕައުލޯ
dolnoserbski: São Paulo
डोटेली: साओ पाउलो
eesti: São Paulo
Ελληνικά: Σάο Πάολο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: São Paulo
эрзянь: Сан-Паулу
español: São Paulo
estremeñu: São Paulo
euskara: São Paulo
Fiji Hindi: São Paulo
føroyskt: São Paulo
français: São Paulo
Gaeilge: São Paulo
Gaelg: São Paulo
Gàidhlig: São Paulo
galego: São Paulo
ГӀалгӀай: Сан-Паулу
贛語: 聖保羅
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: São Paulo
хальмг: Сан-Паулу
한국어: 상파울루
Hausa: São Paulo
հայերեն: Սան Պաուլո
हिन्दी: साओ पाउलो
hornjoserbsce: São Paulo
hrvatski: São Paulo
Ilokano: São Paulo
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সাও পাউলো
Bahasa Indonesia: São Paulo
interlingua: São Paulo (citate)
Interlingue: São Paulo
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓴᐆ ᐸᐆᓘ
Iñupiak: São Paulo
íslenska: São Paulo
עברית: סאו פאולו
Basa Jawa: São Paulo
Kabɩyɛ: Sao Paolo
kalaallisut: São Paulo
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಾವೊ ಪಾಲೊ
Kapampangan: São Paulo
ქართული: სან-პაულუ
қазақша: Сан-Паулу
kernowek: São Paulo
Kiswahili: São Paulo
Kreyòl ayisyen: São Paolo
кырык мары: Сан-Паулу
Ladino: São Paulo
Latina: Paulopolis
latviešu: Sanpaulu
Lëtzebuergesch: São Paulo
лезги: Сан-Паулу
lietuvių: San Paulas
Ligure: São Paulo
Limburgs: São Paulo
lingála: São Paulo
la .lojban.: sankt. paulos
lumbaart: São Paulo
magyar: São Paulo
मैथिली: साओ पाउलो
македонски: Сао Паоло
Malagasy: São Paulo
മലയാളം: സാവോ പോളോ
Māori: São Paulo
मराठी: साओ पाउलो
მარგალური: სან-პაულუ
مازِرونی: سائوپائولو
Bahasa Melayu: São Paulo
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: São Paulo
монгол: Сан-Паулу
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆောပိုလိုမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: São Paulo (tekawa)
Na Vosa Vakaviti: São Paulo
Nederlands: São Paulo (stad)
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᓴᐅ ᐸᐅᐅ
नेपाली: साओ पाउलो
日本語: サンパウロ
Napulitano: San Paulo
нохчийн: Сан-Паулу
norsk: São Paulo
norsk nynorsk: São Paulo
Nouormand: San Paulu
Novial: São Paulo
олык марий: Сан-Паулу
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: San-Paulu (shahar)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਾਓ ਪਾਉਲੋ
پنجابی: ساؤ پولو
Papiamentu: São Paulo
Patois: Sou Paalo
Перем Коми: Сан Павлу
Picard: São Paulo
Tok Pisin: San Paulu
Plattdüütsch: São Paulo
polski: São Paulo
português: São Paulo
Qaraqalpaqsha: San Paulo
qırımtatarca: San Paulu
reo tahiti: São Paulo
Runa Simi: São Paulo
русиньскый: Сан Пауло
русский: Сан-Паулу
саха тыла: Сан Паулу
संस्कृतम्: साओ पाओलो
sardu: Sao Paulo
Scots: São Paulo
Seeltersk: São Paulo
shqip: São Paulo
Simple English: São Paulo
slovenčina: São Paulo
slovenščina: São Paulo
ślůnski: São Paulo
Soomaaliga: Sow Bawlo
کوردی: ساوپاولۆ
Sranantongo: São Paulo
српски / srpski: Сао Пауло
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: São Paulo
suomi: São Paulo
svenska: São Paulo
Tagalog: São Paulo
tarandíne: San Pàule
татарча/tatarça: Сан-Паулу
tetun: Saun Paulu
тоҷикӣ: Сан-Паулу
Tsetsêhestâhese: São Paulo
Türkçe: São Paulo
Türkmençe: San-Paulu
удмурт: Сан-Паулу
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: São Paulo
українська: Сан-Паулу
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: San Pawlo
Vahcuengh: São Paulo
vepsän kel’: San Paulu
Tiếng Việt: São Paulo
Võro: São Paulo
walon: Sawo Pålo
Winaray: São Paulo
Wolof: São Paulo
ייִדיש: סאו פאולא
Yorùbá: São Paulo
粵語: 聖保羅
Zazaki: São Paulo
Zeêuws: São Paulo
žemaitėška: San Paulos