Rubicon River
Foce rubicone 1 by Stefano Bolognini.JPG
The mouth of the Rubicon in Cesenatico
Physical characteristics
 - locationSogliano al Rubicone
 - elevation250 m (820 ft)
 - location
Adriatic Sea
Length80 km (50 mi)

The Rubicon (Latin: Rubicō, Italian: Rubicone pronounced [rubiˈkone][1]) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna. The same name was given to a river that was famously crossed by Julius Caesar in 49 BC. While it has not been proven, some historians agree that the two rivers are indeed one and the same; this was not always the case.

The modern-day river flows for around 80 km (50 mi) from the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea through the south of the Emilia-Romagna region, between the towns of Rimini and Cesena. The Latin word Rubicō comes from the adjective rubeus, meaning "red". The river was so named because its waters are colored red by mud deposits.


During the Roman republic, the river Rubicon marked the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the northeast and Italy proper, controlled directly by Rome and its socii (allies), to the south. On the north-western side, the border was marked by the river Arno, a much wider and more important waterway, which flows westward from the Apennine Mountains (it and the Rubicon rise not far from each other) into the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Governors of Roman provinces were appointed promagistrates with imperium (roughly, "right to command") in their province(s). The governor would then serve as the general of the Roman army within the territory of his province(s). Roman law specified that only the elected magistrates (consuls and praetors) could hold imperium within Italy. Any promagistrate who entered Italy at the head of his troops forfeited his imperium and was therefore no longer legally allowed to command troops.

Exercising imperium when forbidden by the law was a capital offense. Furthermore, obeying the commands of a general who did not legally possess imperium was also a capital offense. If a general entered Italy while exercising command of an army, both the general and his soldiers became outlaws and were automatically condemned to death. Generals were thus obliged to disband their armies before entering Italy.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Rubicon
العربية: روبيكوني
беларуская: Рубікон
български: Рубикон
català: Rubicó
Чӑвашла: Рубикон
Cebuano: Fiume Uso
čeština: Rubikon
Cymraeg: Afon Rubicon
dansk: Rubicon
Deutsch: Rubikon
Ελληνικά: Ρουβίκωνας
español: Río Rubicón
Esperanto: Rubikono
euskara: Rubikon
فارسی: روبیکن
français: Rubicon
Frysk: Rubikon
한국어: 루비콘강
հայերեն: Ռուբիկոն
hrvatski: Rubikon
Bahasa Indonesia: Rubicon
italiano: Rubicone
עברית: רוביקון
ქართული: რუბიკონი
Latina: Rubico
latviešu: Rubikona
lietuvių: Rubikonas
日本語: ルビコン川
norsk: Rubicon
norsk nynorsk: Rubicon
occitan: Rubicon
polski: Rubikon
português: Rio Rubicão
română: Rubicon
русский: Рубикон
Scots: Rubicon
sicilianu: Rubbiconi
Simple English: Rubicon
slovenčina: Rubikon
slovenščina: Rubikon
српски / srpski: Рубикон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rubikon
suomi: Rubikon
svenska: Rubicon
Tagalog: Rubicon
Türkçe: Rubicon
українська: Рубікон
vèneto: Rubicone
Tiếng Việt: Sông Rubicon
中文: 卢比孔河