Roseline was born at the château of Les Arcs-sur-Argens, Var, in eastern Provence, near Draguignan. Having overcome her father's opposition, Roseline became a Carthusian nun at Bertaud in the Alps of Dauphiné. Her "consecration" took place in 1288, and in about 1330 she succeeded her aunt, Blessed Jeanne (Diane) de Villeneuve, as Prioress of La Celle-Robaud in the Diocese of Fréjus near her home. In 1320 her brother Hélion de Villeneuve, Grand Master (1319–46) of the Knights of St. John, restored the monastery, and in 1323 and 1328 Pope John XXII, formerly Bishop of Fréjus, increased its revenue, granting indulgences for the anniversary of the dedication of the church.
Roseline obtained leave to resign her office before her death. Many visions together with extraordinary austerities and great power over demons are ascribed to her.