Romanticism

  • caspar david friedrich, wanderer above the sea of fog, 1818
    eugène delacroix, death of sardanapalus, 1827, taking its orientalist subject from a play by lord byron
    philipp otto runge, the morning, 1808

    romanticism (also known as the romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. it was partly a reaction to the industrial revolution,[1] the aristocratic social and political norms of the age of enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity.[2] it was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education,[4] the social sciences, and the natural sciences.[5][failed verification] it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.[6]

    the movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. it elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). in contrast to the rationalism and classicism of the enlightenment, romanticism revived medievalism[7] and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

    although the movement was rooted in the german sturm und drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the french revolution were also proximate factors. romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. it also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. there was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. in the second half of the 19th century, realism was offered as a polar opposite to romanticism.[8] the decline of romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.[9]

  • defining romanticism
  • literature
  • architecture
  • visual arts
  • music
  • outside the arts
  • romantic nationalism
  • gallery
  • romantic authors
  • scholars of romanticism
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, taking its Orientalist subject from a play by Lord Byron
Philipp Otto Runge, The Morning, 1808

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution,[1] the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity.[2] It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education,[4] the social sciences, and the natural sciences.[5][failed verification] It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.[6]

The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism[7] and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.[8] The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.[9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Romantiek
Alemannisch: Romantik
العربية: رومانسية (فن)
aragonés: Romanticismo
Արեւմտահայերէն: Վիպապաշտութիւն
asturianu: Romanticismu
azərbaycanca: Romantizm
تۆرکجه: رومانتیزم
Bân-lâm-gú: Lô-mán-chú-gī
башҡортса: Романтизм
беларуская: Рамантызм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рамантызм
български: Романтизъм
bosanski: Romantizam
català: Romanticisme
Чӑвашла: Романтизм
Cebuano: Romantisismo
čeština: Romantismus
Cymraeg: Rhamantiaeth
Deutsch: Romantik
eesti: Romantism
Ελληνικά: Ρομαντισμός
español: Romanticismo
Esperanto: Romantikismo
فارسی: رمانتیسم
français: Romantisme
Frysk: Romantyk
Gaeilge: Rómánsachas
galego: Romanticismo
贛語: 浪漫主義
한국어: 낭만주의
հայերեն: Ռոմանտիզմ
hrvatski: Romantizam
Bahasa Indonesia: Romantisisme
interlingua: Romanticismo
íslenska: Rómantíkin
italiano: Romanticismo
עברית: רומנטיקה
ქართული: რომანტიზმი
kriyòl gwiyannen: Romantism
kurdî: Romantîzm
Кыргызча: Романтизм
latviešu: Romantisms
lietuvių: Romantizmas
Limburgs: Romantiek
Lingua Franca Nova: Romanticisme
magyar: Romantika
македонски: Романтизам
മലയാളം: കാല്പനികത
Bahasa Melayu: Romantisisme
монгол: Романтизм
Nedersaksies: Romantiek
日本語: ロマン主義
Nordfriisk: Romantik
norsk nynorsk: Romantikken
occitan: Romantisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Romantizm
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੋਮਾਂਸਵਾਦ
پنجابی: رومانیت
Papiamentu: Romanticismo
Piemontèis: Romanticism
polski: Romantyzm
português: Romantismo
română: Romantism
rumantsch: Romantica
русиньскый: Романтізм
русский: Романтизм
Seeltersk: Romantik
sicilianu: Rumanticismu
Simple English: Romanticism
سنڌي: رومانيت
slovenčina: Romantizmus
slovenščina: Romantika
کوردی: ڕۆمانتیزم
српски / srpski: Романтизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Romantizam
svenska: Romantiken
Tagalog: Romantisismo
тоҷикӣ: Романтизм
Türkçe: Romantizm
українська: Романтизм
اردو: رومانیت
vèneto: Romanticismo
Tiếng Việt: Chủ nghĩa lãng mạn
walon: Romantisse
West-Vlams: Romantiek
Winaray: Romantisismo
吴语: 浪漫主义
粵語: 浪漫主義
中文: 浪漫主义