Roman Empire

Roman Empire
27 BC – 395 AD
395 – 480 (Western)
395 – 1453 (Eastern)

The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink).[1]
The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink).[1]
Common languages
GovernmentMixed, functionally absolute monarchy
• 27 BC  – AD 14
Augustus (first)
• 98–117
• 284–305
• 306–337
Constantine I
• 379–395
Theodosius I[n 3]
• 474–480
Julius Nepos[n 4]
• 527–565
Justinian I
• 976–1025
Basil II
• 1449–1453
Constantine XI[n 5]
Historical eraClassical era to Late Middle Ages
32–30 BC
30–2 BC
• Constantinople
becomes capital
11 May 330
• Final East-West divide
17 Jan 395
4 Sep 476
12 Apr 1204
• Reconquest of Constantinople
25 Jul 1261
29 May 1453
• Fall of Trebizond
15 August 1461
25 BC[2][3]2,750,000 km2 (1,060,000 sq mi)
AD 117[2][4]5,000,000 km2 (1,900,000 sq mi)
AD 390[2]4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)
• 25 BC[2][3]
CurrencySestertius,[n 6] Aureus, Solidus, Nomisma
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Q. Servilius Caepio (M. Junius) Brutus, denarius, 54 BC, RRC 433-1 reverse.jpgRoman Republic
Western Roman EmpireJulius Nepos Tremissis.jpg
Eastern Roman EmpireConstantine multiple CdM Beistegui 233.jpg

The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum, Classical Latin: [ɪmˈpɛ.ri.ũː roːˈmaː.nũː]; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, with a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world c. 100 BC – c. AD 400, with Constantinople (New Rome) becoming the largest around AD 500,[5][6] and the Empire's population grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time).[n 7][7] The 500-year-old republic which preceded it had been severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively marking the end of the Roman Republic.

The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in AD 41, the Senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. After Claudius' successor, Nero, committed suicide in AD 68, the empire suffered a series of brief civil wars, as well as a concurrent major rebellion in Judea, during which four different legionary generals were proclaimed emperor. Vespasian emerged triumphant in AD 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty. He was succeeded by his son Titus, who opened the Colosseum shortly after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The Senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line.

A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, from which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a fifty-year time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire jointly. This arrangement was ultimately unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine the Great, who defeated his rivals and became the sole ruler of the empire in 324. Constantine subsequently established a second capital city in Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity. Influenced by his adviser Mardonius, Constantine's nephew Julian unsuccessfully attempted to return the empire to paganism. Christianity became the official state religion of the empire under Theodosius I, who was the last emperor to rule over both the western and eastern halves of the Empire.

The dominion of the Western Roman Empire was gradually eroded by abuses of power, civil wars, barbarian migrations and invasions, military reforms, and economic depression. The Sack of Rome in 410 by the Visigoths and again in 455 by the Vandals accelerated the Western Empire's decay, while the deposition of the emperor, Romulus Augustulus, in 476 by Odoacer, is traditionally accepted to mark the end of the empire in the west. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the western part of the empire only ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos, recognized as emperor by both Odoacer and the Eastern emperor, in 480. The Eastern Roman Empire (in modern historiography called the Byzantine Empire) endured for another millennium as one of the leading powers in the world alongside its arch-rival the Sassanid Empire, which had inherited a centuries-old Roman-Persian conflict from its predecessor the Parthians.[8][9] The Byzantine Empire eventually fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres.[2][4] It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the world's entire population. The longevity and vast extent of the empire ensured the lasting influence of Latin and Greek language, culture, religion, inventions, architecture, philosophy, law and forms of government over the empire's descendants. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were even made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state; and the Holy Roman Empire. By means of European colonialism following the Renaissance, and their descendant states, Greco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian culture was exported on a worldwide scale, playing a crucial role in the development of the modern world.


The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)

Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.[10][11][12][13] The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves (though with varying degrees of independence from the Roman Senate) and provinces administered by military commanders. It was ruled, not by emperors, but by annually elected magistrates (Roman Consuls above all) in conjunction with the senate.[14] For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which ultimately led to rule by emperors.[11][15][16][17] The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which literally means "command" (though typically in a military sense).[18] Occasionally, successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator (commander), and this is the origin of the word emperor (and empire) since this title (among others) was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession.[19]

Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated. The faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citizen") with proconsular imperium, thus beginning the Principate (the first epoch of Roman imperial history, usually dated from 27 BC to AD 284), and gave him the name "Augustus" ("the venerated"). Though the old constitutional machinery remained in place, Augustus came to predominate it. Although the republic stood in name, contemporaries of Augustus knew it was just a veil and that Augustus had all meaningful authority in Rome.[20] Since his rule ended a century of civil wars and began an unprecedented period of peace and prosperity, he was so loved that he came to hold the power of a monarch de facto if not de jure. During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged (in part organically and in part by design), so that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor. The 200 years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred.[21] The sixty years of Jewish–Roman wars in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were exceptional in their duration and violence.[22]

The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs. The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted for four more emperors—Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero—before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of Four Emperors, from which Vespasian emerged as victor. Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty, to be followed by the Nerva–Antonine dynasty which produced the "Five Good Emperors": Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and the philosophically-inclined Marcus Aurelius. In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in 180 AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron"[23]—a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire.[24][25]

In 212, during the reign of Caracalla, Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire. But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan dynasty was tumultuous—an emperor's reign was ended routinely by his murder or execution—and, following its collapse, the Roman Empire was engulfed by the Crisis of the Third Century, a period of invasions, civil strife, economic disorder, and plague.[26] In defining historical epochs, this crisis is sometimes viewed as marking the transition from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity. Aurelian (reigned 270–275) brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it. Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord".[27] This marked the end of the Principate, and the beginning of the Dominate. Diocletian's reign also brought the empire's most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianity, the "Great Persecution". The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453.[citation needed]

The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the IV century and lasted for many centuries during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between the ancient world and the medieval ages.

Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperor, the Tetrarchy.[28] Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed. Order was eventually restored by Constantine the Great, who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire. During the decades of the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties, the empire was divided along an east–west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome. The reign of Julian, who under the influence of his adviser Mardonius attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion, only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in 395 AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire.[29]

The Roman Empire by 476

The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to assimilate the migrants and fight off the invaders.[citation needed] The Romans were successful in fighting off all invaders, most famously Attila,[citation needed] though the empire had assimilated so many Germanic peoples of dubious loyalty to Rome that the empire started to dismember itself.[citation needed] Most chronologies place the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer.[30][better source needed] By placing himself under the rule of the Eastern Emperor, rather than naming himself Emperor (as other Germanic chiefs had done after deposing past emperors), Odoacer ended the Western Empire by ending the line of Western emperors.[citation needed]

The empire in the East—often known as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the Roman Empire or by various other names—had a different fate. It survived for almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered Northern Africa and Italy. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula.[31] In the east, partially resulting from the destructive Plague of Justinian, the Romans were threatened by the rise of Islam, whose followers rapidly conquered the territories of Syria, Armenia and Egypt during the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and soon presented a direct threat to Constantinople.[32][33] In the following century, the Arabs also captured southern Italy and Sicily.[34] Slavic populations were also able to penetrate deep into the Balkans.[citation needed]

The Roman (Byzantine) Empire c. 1263.

The Romans, however, managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands.[35] In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, culture and trade flourished.[36] However, soon after, the expansion was abruptly stopped in 1071 with the Byzantine defeat in the Battle of Manzikert. The aftermath of this important battle sent the empire into a protracted period of decline. Two decades of internal strife and Turkic invasions ultimately paved the way for Emperor Alexios I Komnenos to send a call for help to the Western European kingdoms in 1095.[32]

The West responded with the Crusades, eventually resulting in the Sack of Constantinople by participants in the Fourth Crusade. The conquest of Constantinople in 1204 fragmented what remained of the Empire into successor states, the ultimate victor being that of Nicaea.[37] After the recapture of Constantinople by Imperial forces, the Empire was little more than a Greek state confined to the Aegean coast. The Roman Empire finally collapsed when Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on 29 May 1453.[38]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Romeinse Ryk
aragonés: Imperio Román
asturianu: Imperiu romanu
azərbaycanca: Roma İmperiyası
Bân-lâm-gú: Lô-má Tè-kok
башҡортса: Рим империяһы
беларуская: Рымская імперыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рымская імпэрыя
български: Римска империя
bosanski: Rimsko carstvo
català: Imperi Romà
dansk: Romerriget
dolnoserbski: Romski imperium
español: Imperio romano
Esperanto: Romia Imperio
estremeñu: Empériu romanu
Fiji Hindi: Roman Samrajya
føroyskt: Rómverjaríkið
français: Empire romain
贛語: 羅馬帝國
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lò-mâ Ti-koet
한국어: 로마 제국
hornjoserbsce: Romski imperij
hrvatski: Rimsko Carstvo
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekaisaran Romawi
interlingua: Imperio Roman
italiano: Impero romano
Kiswahili: Dola la Roma
Kreyòl ayisyen: Anpi Women
latviešu: Romas impērija
Lëtzebuergesch: Réimescht Räich
lietuvių: Romos imperija
Ligure: Impêo Roman
Limburgs: Romeins Riek
la .lojban.: latmo sosygugje'a
lumbaart: Impero Roman
македонски: Римско Царство
Malagasy: Empira Romana
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Rom
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lò̤-mā Dá̤-guók
Mirandés: Ampério Romano
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရောမအင်ပါယာ
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Na Matanitu ki Roma
Nedersaksies: Romeinse Riek
नेपाल भाषा: रोमन साम्राज्य
日本語: ローマ帝国
Napulitano: Impero Rumano
norsk nynorsk: Romarriket
occitan: Empèri Roman
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੋਮਨ ਸਮਰਾਜ
پنجابی: رومی سلطنت
Papiamentu: Imperio romano
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចក្រភព រ៉ូម
Piemontèis: Imperi Roman
português: Império Romano
qırımtatarca: Roma İmperiyası
română: Imperiul Roman
русиньскый: Римска империя
саха тыла: Рим империята
Gagana Samoa: Emepaea o Roma
Seeltersk: Roomske Riek
sicilianu: Mpèriu rumanu
Simple English: Roman Empire
slovenčina: Rímske cisárstvo
slovenščina: Rimski imperij
српски / srpski: Римско царство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rimsko Carstvo
Basa Sunda: Kakaisaran Romawi
татарча/tatarça: Рим империясе
Türkmençe: Rim imperiýasy
українська: Римська імперія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: رىم ئىمپېرىيىسى
Vahcuengh: Lozmaj Daeqgoz
vèneto: Inpero Roman
vepsän kel’: Rimalaine imperii
Tiếng Việt: Đế quốc La Mã
West-Vlams: Romeins Ryk
吴语: 罗马帝国
粵語: 羅馬帝國
žemaitėška: Ruomas imperėjė
中文: 羅馬帝國
Lingua Franca Nova: Impero Roman