Roman Curia

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Roman Curia
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The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See [a] and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church. It acts in his name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the necessary central organization for the correct functioning of the Church and the achievement of its goals. [1] [2] [3] [b]

The structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, [5] which Pope Francis has decided to revise. [6] [7] [8]

Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, though they are not in fact part of it, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction. The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." [9]

Historical background

Curia in medieval and later Latin usage means " court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England. [10] It is the papal court and assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known also as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State (established in 1939 by Pius XII) and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government.

It is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe. The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, and his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City.

Until recently, there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff. These reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. [11] The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, which is composed only of offices of the Holy See. The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. [12] All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office immediately after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante.

Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation. [13]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Römische Kurie
беларуская: Рымская Курыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рымская курыя
български: Римска курия
čeština: Papežská kurie
Cymraeg: Llys y Pab
español: Curia Romana
Esperanto: Roma kurio
français: Curie romaine
한국어: 로마 교황청
hrvatski: Rimska kurija
Ido: Kurio
Bahasa Indonesia: Kuria Roma
italiano: Curia romana
ქართული: რომის კურია
Latina: Curia Romana
lietuvių: Romos kurija
Bahasa Melayu: Kuria Rom
Nederlands: Romeinse Curie
Plattdüütsch: Kurie
română: Curia Romană
Simple English: Roman Curia
slovenčina: Rímska kúria
slovenščina: Rimska kurija
српски / srpski: Римска курија
українська: Римська курія
Tiếng Việt: Giáo triều Rôma
吴语: 羅馬敎廷
粵語: 羅馬教廷
中文: 羅馬教廷