Robben Island

Robben Island

Robbeneiland
Robben Island Village
Robben Island Village
Robben Island is located in Western Cape
Robben Island
Robben Island
Robben Island is located in South Africa
Robben Island
Robben Island
Coordinates: 33°48′24″S 18°21′58″E / 33°48′24″S 18°21′58″E / -33.806734; 18.366222(2011)[1]
 • Total116
 • Density22/km2 (58/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
 • Black African60.3%
 • Coloured23.3%
 • White13.8%
 • Other2.6%
First languages (2011)
 • Xhosa37.9%
 • Afrikaans35.3%
 • Zulu15.5%
 • English7.8%
 • Other3.4%
Time zoneUTC+2 (SAST)
PO box
7400
TypeCultural
Criteriaiii, vi
Designated1999 (23rd 916
State PartySouth Africa
RegionAfrica

Robben Island (Afrikaans: Robbeneiland) is an island in Table Bay, 6.9 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of the coast of Bloubergstrand, Cape Town, South Africa. The name is Dutch for "seal island." Robben Island is roughly oval in shape, 3.3 km (2.1 mi) long north-south, and 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide, with an area of 5.08 km2 (1.96 sq mi).[2] It is flat and only a few metres above sea level, as a result of an ancient erosion event. Nobel Laureate and former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was imprisoned there for 18 of the 27 years he served behind bars before the fall of apartheid. To date, three former inmates of Robben Island have gone on to become President of South Africa: Nelson Mandela, Kgalema Motlanthe,[3] and Jacob Zuma.

Robben Island is a South African National Heritage Site as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[4][5]

History

Since the end of the 17th century, Robben Island has been used for the isolation of mainly political prisoners. The Dutch settlers were the first to use Robben Island as a prison. Its first prisoner was probably Autshumato in the mid-17th century. Among its early permanent inhabitants were political leaders from various Dutch colonies, including Indonesia, and the leader of the mutiny on the slave ship Meermin.

After the British Royal Navy captured several Dutch East Indiamen at the battle of Saldanha Bay in 1781, a boat rowed out to meet the British warships. On board were the "kings of Ternate and Tidore, and the princes of the respective families". The Dutch had long held them on "Isle Robin", but then had moved them to Saldanha Bay.[6]

In 1806 the Scottish whaler John Murray opened a whaling station at a sheltered bay on the north-eastern shore of the island which became known as Murray's Bay, adjacent to the site of the present-day harbour named Murray's Bay Harbour which was constructed in 1939–40.[7][8]

After a failed uprising at Grahamstown in 1819, the fifth of the Xhosa Wars, the British colonial government sentenced African leader Makanda Nxele to life imprisonment on the island.[9] He drowned on the shores of Table Bay after escaping the prison.[10][11]

The island was also used as a leper colony and animal quarantine station.[12] Starting in 1845 lepers from the Hemel-en-Aarde (heaven and earth) leper colony near Caledon were moved to Robben Island when Hemel-en-Aarde was found unsuitable as a leper colony. Initially this was done on a voluntary basis and the lepers were free to leave the island if they so wished.[13] In April 1891 the cornerstones for 11 new buildings to house lepers were laid. After the introduction of the Leprosy Repression Act in May 1892 admission was no longer voluntary and the movement of the lepers was restricted. Prior to 1892 an average of about 25 lepers a year were admitted to Robben Island, but in 1892 that number rose to 338, and in 1893 a further 250 were admitted.[13]

During the Second World War the island was fortified and BL 9.2-inch guns and 6-inch guns were installed as part of the defences for Cape Town.

Robben Island as viewed from Table Mountain towards Saldanha Bay

From 1961, Robben Island was used by the South African government as a prison for political prisoners and convicted criminals. In 1969 the Moturu Kramat, which is now a sacred site for Muslim pilgrimage on Robben Island, was built to commemorate Sayed Abdurahman Moturu, the Prince of Madura. Moturu, who was one of Cape Town's first imams, was exiled to the island in the mid-1740s. He died there in 1754. Muslim political prisoners would pay homage at the shrine before leaving the island.

The maximum security prison for political prisoners closed in 1991. The medium security prison for criminal prisoners was closed five years later.[14]

With the end of apartheid, the island has become a popular destination with global tourists. It is managed by Robben Island Museum (RIM); which operates the site as a living museum. In 1999 the island was declared a World Heritage Site. Every year thousands of visitors take the ferry from the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town for tours of the island and its former prison. Many of the guides are former prisoners. All land on the island is owned by the country of South Africa with the exception of the island church. Administratively, Robben Island is a suburb of the City of Cape Town.[15] It is open all year around, weather permitting.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Robbeneiland
العربية: جزيرة روبن
asturianu: Islla Robben
català: Robben Island
Cebuano: Robben Island
čeština: Robben Island
Cymraeg: Ynys Robben
Deutsch: Robben Island
español: Isla Robben
Esperanto: Insulo Robben
français: Robben Island
galego: Illa Robben
한국어: 로벤섬
հայերեն: Ռոբեն Այլենդ
hrvatski: Otok Robben
Bahasa Indonesia: Pulau Robben
isiXhosa: Robben Island
íslenska: Robben-eyja
italiano: Robben Island
Kiswahili: Robben Island
latviešu: Robena
Lëtzebuergesch: Robben Island
Bahasa Melayu: Pulau Robben
Nederlands: Robbeneiland
日本語: ロベン島
norsk nynorsk: Robben Island
occitan: Robben Island
polski: Robbeneiland
português: Ilha Robben
română: Insula Robben
русский: Роббенэйланд
Simple English: Robben Island
slovenčina: Robben Island
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Otok Robben
svenska: Robben Island
Türkçe: Robben Adası
українська: Роббенайланд
Tiếng Việt: Đảo Robben
中文: 羅本島