Rice

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production (rice, 741.5 million tonnes in 2014), after sugarcane (1.9 billion tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes).[1]

Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers

Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans.[2] There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally.

Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Rice can come in many shapes, colors and sizes.

Rice, a monocot, is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years.[3] Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice

The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.

Etymology

First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin orȳza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα (oruza). The Greek word is the source of all European words (compare Welsh reis, German Reis, Lithuanian ryžiai, Serbo-Croatian riža, Polish ryż, Dutch rijst, Hungarian rizs, Romanian orez, Spanish arroz).[4][5][6]

The origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி (arisi), or rather Old Tamil 𑀅𑀭𑀺𑀘𑀺 (arici).[7][8] However, Krishnamurti[9] disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer[10] suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, source of the modern Persian word برنج (berenj), but these are ultimately traced back to Indo-Aryan (as in Sanskrit व्रीहि, vrīhí-). P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Прунж
Afrikaans: Rys
Alemannisch: Reis
አማርኛ: ሩዝ
العربية: أرز
aragonés: Roz
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܪܘܙܐ
armãneashti: Urizu
অসমীয়া: ধান
asturianu: Arroz
Atikamekw: Miromin
تۆرکجه: دویو
Bali: Baas
বাংলা: চাল
Banjar: Banih
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiū
башҡортса: Дөгө
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рыс
भोजपुरी: चाउर
Bikol Central: Paroy
български: Ориз
Boarisch: Reis
བོད་ཡིག: འབྲས།
bosanski: Riža
brezhoneg: Riz
català: Arròs
Чӑвашла: Рис
čeština: Rýže
chiShona: Mupunga
Cymraeg: Reis
dansk: Ris
Deutsch: Reis
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހަނޑޫ
Diné bizaad: Alóós
डोटेली: धान
Ελληνικά: Ρύζι
español: Arroz
Esperanto: Rizo
euskara: Arroz
فارسی: برنج
Fiji Hindi: Bhaat
føroyskt: Rís
français: Riz
Frysk: Rys
Gaeilge: Rís
galego: Arroz
ГӀалгӀай: Дуга
贛語:
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vò-é
한국어:
Hausa: Shinkafa
հայերեն: Բրինձ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Բրինձ
हिन्दी: चावल
hornjoserbsce: Rajs
hrvatski: Riža
Ido: Rizo
Igbo: Oskàpà
Bahasa Indonesia: Beras
interlingua: Ris
Ирон: Пырындз
íslenska: Hrísgrjón
italiano: Riso (alimento)
עברית: אורז
Jawa: Pantun
Kabɩyɛ: Mɔʋ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಕ್ಕಿ
Kapampangan: Pale
ქართული: ბრინჯი
қазақша: Күріш
Kinyarwanda: Umuceli
Kirundi: Umuceri
Kiswahili: Wali
Kreyòl ayisyen: Diri
kurdî: Riz
Ladino: Arroz
лакку: Ппиринж
latviešu: Rīsi
Lëtzebuergesch: Räis
лезги: Дуьгуь
lietuvių: Ryžis
Ligure: Riso
Limburgs: Ries
lingála: Lɔ́sɔ
Lingua Franca Nova: Ris
la .lojban.: rismi
lumbaart: Ris
magyar: Rizs
मैथिली: धान
македонски: Ориз
Malagasy: Vary
മലയാളം: അരി
मराठी: तांदूळ
მარგალური: ორზა
مصرى: رز
مازِرونی: برنج
Bahasa Melayu: Beras
Minangkabau: Bareh
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dêu
монгол: Тутарга
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆန်
Nederlands: Rijst
Nedersaksies: Ries (Oryza sativa)
नेपाली: चामल
नेपाल भाषा: जाकि
日本語:
нохчийн: Дуга
norsk: Ris
norsk nynorsk: Ris
ꆇꉙ:
occitan: Ris
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚାଉଳ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Guruch
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚਾਵਲ
پنجابی: چول
Patois: Rais
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ស្រូវ
polski: Ryż
português: Arroz
română: Orez
Runa Simi: Arrus
русский: Рис (зерно)
саха тыла: Рис
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱫᱟᱠᱟ
संस्कृतम्: तण्डुलाः
Scots: Rice
shqip: Orizi
සිංහල: බත්
Simple English: Rice
سنڌي: چانور
slovenčina: Ryža (potravina)
slovenščina: Riž
Soomaaliga: Bariis
کوردی: برنج
српски / srpski: Пиринач
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Riža
Sunda: Béas
suomi: Riisi
svenska: Ris
Tagalog: Palay
தமிழ்: நெல்
татарча/tatarça: Дөге
తెలుగు: బియ్యము
ไทย: ข้าว
тоҷикӣ: Биринҷ
Türkçe: Pirinç
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Lop
українська: Рис
اردو: چاول
Vahcuengh: Haeuxbieg
vèneto: Rixo
Tiếng Việt: Gạo
Võro: Riis
walon: Riz
文言:
Winaray: Humay
吴语:
ייִדיש: רייז
粵語: 稻米
žemaitėška: Rīžā
中文: