Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros
Temporal range: Eocene–Present
Diceros bicornis.jpg
A Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) at the Saint Louis Zoo.
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Perissodactyla
Superfamily:Rhinocerotoidea
Family:Rhinocerotidae
Gray, 1820
Extant genera

Ceratotherium
Dicerorhinus
Diceros
Rhinoceros
Extinct genera, see text

Rhinocerotidae distribution map en.png
Rhinoceros range

A rhinoceros (s/, from Greek, Modern rhinokeros, meaning 'nose-horned', from rhinos, meaning 'nose', and kerato/keras, meaning 'horn'), commonly abbreviated to 'rhino', is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species. Two of the extant species are native to Africa and three to Southern Asia. The term "rhinoceros" is often more broadly applied to now extinct relatives of the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea.

Members of the rhinoceros family are some of the largest remaining megafauna, with all species able to reach or exceed one tonne in weight. They have a herbivorous diet, small brains (400–600 g) for mammals of their size, one or two horns, and a thick (1.5–5 cm) protective skin formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter when necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food.[1]

Rhinoceros are killed by some humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and used by some cultures for ornaments or traditional medicine. East Asia, specifically Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People grind up the horns and consume them, believing the dust has therapeutic properties.[2][3] The horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails.[4] Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan rhinoceros have a single horn. The IUCN Red List identifies the Black, Javan, and Sumatran rhinoceros as critically endangered.

Taxonomy and naming

Rhinocerotidae

Ceratotherium simum

Diceros bicornis

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

Rhinoceros unicornis

Rhinoceros sondaicus

Cladogram following a phylogenetic study.[5]

The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek: ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνο- (rhino-, "nose") and κέρας (keras, "horn"). The plural in English is rhinoceros or rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is crash or herd. The name has been in use since the 14th century.[6]

The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium (White rhinoceros), Dicerorhinus (Sumatran rhinoceros), Diceros (Black rhinoceros) and Rhinoceros (Indian and Javan rhinoceros). The living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago. The species diverged during the early Pliocene (about 5 million years ago). The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths – white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago. The Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene (about 20 million years ago).[7]

A subspecific hybrid white rhino (Ceratotherium s. simum × C. s. cottoni) was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo (Zoological Garden Dvur Kralove nad Labem) in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has also been confirmed.[8]

While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes.[9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Renoster
Alemannisch: Nashorn
አማርኛ: አውራሪስ
العربية: كركدنيات
arpetan: Rinocèros
asturianu: Rhinocerotidae
Avañe'ẽ: Tĩatĩ
azərbaycanca: Kərgədanlar
تۆرکجه: کرگدن
বাংলা: গণ্ডার
Bân-lâm-gú: Sai-gû
башҡортса: Мөгөҙморондар
беларуская: Насарогі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Насарогі
български: Носорози
བོད་ཡིག: བསེ་རུ།
bosanski: Nosorog
brezhoneg: Frikorneg
català: Rinoceronts
čeština: Nosorožcovití
chiShona: Chipembere
dansk: Næsehorn
Deutsch: Nashörner
Diné bizaad: Déélgééd
Ελληνικά: Ρινόκερος
español: Rhinocerotidae
Esperanto: Rinoceredoj
euskara: Errinozero
فارسی: کرگدن
føroyskt: Nashyrningur
français: Rhinocéros
Gàidhlig: Sròn-adharcach
galego: Rinocerontes
ГӀалгӀай: Бирнал
хальмг: Орңһ
한국어: 코뿔소
հայերեն: Ռնգեղջյուր
हिन्दी: गैण्डा
hrvatski: Nosorozi
Bahasa Indonesia: Badak
íslenska: Nashyrningur
italiano: Rhinocerotidae
עברית: קרנפיים
Basa Jawa: Warak
kalaallisut: Siissisoq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಖಡ್ಗಮೃಗ
Kiswahili: Kifaru
коми: Сюраныр
Kongo: Kifalu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Rinoseròs
kurdî: Kerkedan
Кыргызча: Кериктер
лакку: Каргадан
latviešu: Degunradži
lietuvių: Raganosiniai
Limburgs: Neushores
lingála: Kánga
Lingua Franca Nova: Rinosero
मैथिली: गैंडा
македонски: Носорог
മലയാളം: കാണ്ടാമൃഗം
मराठी: गेंडा
مازِرونی: کرگردن
Bahasa Melayu: Badak sumbu
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Să̤-ngiù
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကြံ့
Nederlands: Neushoorns
नेपाली: गैंडा
नेपाल भाषा: धिर्मेय्
日本語: サイ
нохчийн: МармаӀ
Nordfriisk: Nööshurner
norsk: Neshorn
norsk nynorsk: Nashorn
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଗଣ୍ଡା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Karkidonlar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗੈਂਡਾ
پنجابی: گینڈا
português: Rinoceronte
română: Rinocer
Runa Simi: Sinqawaqra
русский: Носороговые
Scots: Rhinoceros
Sesotho: Tšukulu
Simple English: Rhinoceros
slovenčina: Nosorožcovité
slovenščina: Nosorogi
Soomaaliga: Wiyil
српски / srpski: Носорози
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nosorozi
Basa Sunda: Badak
svenska: Noshörningar
Tagalog: Rinosero
ไทย: แรด
тоҷикӣ: Каркадан
Türkçe: Gergedan
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Kil
удмурт: Носорог
українська: Носорогові
اردو: گینڈا
Tiếng Việt: Tê giác
粵語: 犀牛
中文: 犀牛