Rheumatic fever

  • rheumatic fever
    other namesacute rheumatic fever (arf)
    rheumatic heart disease, gross pathology 20g0013 lores.jpg
    rheumatic heart disease at autopsy with characteristic findings (thickened mitral valve, thickened chordae tendineae, hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium).
    specialtycardiology
    symptomsfever, multiple painful joints, involuntary muscle movements, erythema marginatum[1]
    complicationsrheumatic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, infection of the valves[1]
    usual onset2–4 weeks after a streptococcal throat infection, age 5-14 years[2]
    causesautoimmune disease triggered by streptococcus pyogenes[1]
    risk factorsgenetics, malnutrition, poverty[1]
    diagnostic methodbased on symptoms and infection history[3]
    preventionantibiotics for strep throat, improved sanitation[1][4]
    treatmentprolonged periods of antibiotics, valve replacement surgery, valve repair[1]
    frequency325,000 children a year[1]
    deaths319,400 (2015)[5]

    rheumatic fever (rf) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.[1] the disease typically develops two to four weeks after a streptococcal throat infection.[2] signs and symptoms include fever, multiple painful joints, involuntary muscle movements, and occasionally a characteristic non-itchy rash known as erythema marginatum.[1] the heart is involved in about half of the cases.[1] damage to the heart valves, known as rheumatic heart disease (rhd), usually occurs after repeated attacks but can sometimes occur after one.[1] the damaged valves may result in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and infection of the valves.[1]

    rheumatic fever may occur following an infection of the throat by the bacterium streptococcus pyogenes.[1] if the infection is left untreated, rheumatic fever occurs in up to three percent of people.[6] the underlying mechanism is believed to involve the production of antibodies against a person's own tissues.[1] due to their genetics, some people are more likely to get the disease when exposed to the bacteria than others.[1] other risk factors include malnutrition and poverty.[1] diagnosis of rf is often based on the presence of signs and symptoms in combination with evidence of a recent streptococcal infection.[3]

    treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics, such as penicillin, decreases the risk of developing rheumatic fever.[4] in order to avoid antibiotic misuse this often involves testing people with sore throats for the infection; however, testing might not be available in the developing world.[1] other preventive measures include improved sanitation.[1] in those with rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, prolonged periods of antibiotics are sometimes recommended.[1] gradual return to normal activities may occur following an attack.[1] once rhd develops, treatment is more difficult.[1] occasionally valve replacement surgery or valve repair is required.[1] otherwise complications are treated as per normal.[1]

    rheumatic fever occurs in about 325,000 children each year and about 33.4 million people currently have rheumatic heart disease.[1][7] those who develop rf are most often between the ages of 5 and 14,[1] with 20% of first-time attacks occurring in adults.[8] the disease is most common in the developing world and among indigenous peoples in the developed world.[1] in 2015 it resulted in 319,400 deaths down from 374,000 deaths in 1990.[5][9] most deaths occur in the developing world where as many as 12.5% of people affected may die each year.[1] descriptions of the condition are believed to date back to at least the 5th century bce in the writings of hippocrates.[10] the disease is so named because its symptoms are similar to those of some rheumatic disorders.[11]

  • signs and symptoms
  • pathophysiology
  • diagnosis
  • prevention
  • treatment
  • epidemiology
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Rheumatic fever
Other namesAcute rheumatic fever (ARF)
Rheumatic heart disease, gross pathology 20G0013 lores.jpg
Rheumatic heart disease at autopsy with characteristic findings (thickened mitral valve, thickened chordae tendineae, hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium).
SpecialtyCardiology
SymptomsFever, multiple painful joints, involuntary muscle movements, erythema marginatum[1]
ComplicationsRheumatic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, infection of the valves[1]
Usual onset2–4 weeks after a streptococcal throat infection, age 5-14 years[2]
CausesAutoimmune disease triggered by Streptococcus pyogenes[1]
Risk factorsGenetics, malnutrition, poverty[1]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms and infection history[3]
PreventionAntibiotics for strep throat, improved sanitation[1][4]
TreatmentProlonged periods of antibiotics, valve replacement surgery, valve repair[1]
Frequency325,000 children a year[1]
Deaths319,400 (2015)[5]

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.[1] The disease typically develops two to four weeks after a streptococcal throat infection.[2] Signs and symptoms include fever, multiple painful joints, involuntary muscle movements, and occasionally a characteristic non-itchy rash known as erythema marginatum.[1] The heart is involved in about half of the cases.[1] Damage to the heart valves, known as rheumatic heart disease (RHD), usually occurs after repeated attacks but can sometimes occur after one.[1] The damaged valves may result in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and infection of the valves.[1]

Rheumatic fever may occur following an infection of the throat by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes.[1] If the infection is left untreated, rheumatic fever occurs in up to three percent of people.[6] The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the production of antibodies against a person's own tissues.[1] Due to their genetics, some people are more likely to get the disease when exposed to the bacteria than others.[1] Other risk factors include malnutrition and poverty.[1] Diagnosis of RF is often based on the presence of signs and symptoms in combination with evidence of a recent streptococcal infection.[3]

Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics, such as penicillin, decreases the risk of developing rheumatic fever.[4] In order to avoid antibiotic misuse this often involves testing people with sore throats for the infection; however, testing might not be available in the developing world.[1] Other preventive measures include improved sanitation.[1] In those with rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, prolonged periods of antibiotics are sometimes recommended.[1] Gradual return to normal activities may occur following an attack.[1] Once RHD develops, treatment is more difficult.[1] Occasionally valve replacement surgery or valve repair is required.[1] Otherwise complications are treated as per normal.[1]

Rheumatic fever occurs in about 325,000 children each year and about 33.4 million people currently have rheumatic heart disease.[1][7] Those who develop RF are most often between the ages of 5 and 14,[1] with 20% of first-time attacks occurring in adults.[8] The disease is most common in the developing world and among indigenous peoples in the developed world.[1] In 2015 it resulted in 319,400 deaths down from 374,000 deaths in 1990.[5][9] Most deaths occur in the developing world where as many as 12.5% of people affected may die each year.[1] Descriptions of the condition are believed to date back to at least the 5th century BCE in the writings of Hippocrates.[10] The disease is so named because its symptoms are similar to those of some rheumatic disorders.[11]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Rumatiekkoors
বাংলা: বাতজ্বর
Bân-lâm-gú: Hong-sip-jia̍t
հայերեն: Ռևմատիկ տենդ
Bahasa Indonesia: Demam Reumatik
magyar: Reumás láz
Nederlands: Acuut reuma
नेपाली: बाथज्वरो
日本語: リウマチ熱
português: Febre reumática
Simple English: Rheumatic fever
slovenščina: Revmatična vročina
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Reumatska groznica
suomi: Reumakuume
Tiếng Việt: Thấp tim
吴语: 风湿热
中文: 風溼熱