Rhamnus (genus)

Rhamnus
Rhamnus cathartica für Wikipedia.jpg
Rhamnus cathartica
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Rosales
Family:Rhamnaceae
Genus:Rhamnus
Species

See text.

Rhamnus pumila, dwarf buckthorn

Rhamnus is a genus of about 110 accepted species of shrubs or small trees, commonly known as buckthorns in the family Rhamnaceae. Its species range from 1 to 10 meters tall (rarely to 15 m) and are native mainly in east Asia and North America, but found throughout the temperate and subtropical Northern Hemisphere, and also more locally in the subtropical Southern Hemisphere in parts of Africa and South America.

Both deciduous and evergreen species occur. The leaves are simple, 3 to 15 centimeters long, and arranged alternately or in opposite pairs, or almost paired (subopposite). One distinctive character of many buckthorns is the way the veination curves upward towards the tip of the leaf. The plant bears fruits which are black or red berry-like drupe. The name is due to the woody spine on the end of each twig in many species.

In the United States, Buckthorn is considered an invasive species by many local jurisdictions and state governments, such as Minnesota or Wisconsin.[1]

Description

Rhamnus species are shrubs or small to medium-sized trees, with deciduous or rarely evergreen foliage. Branches are unarmed or end in a woody spine. The leaf blades are undivided and pinnately veined. Leaf margins are serrate or rarely entire. Most species have yellowish green, small, bisexual or unisexual, rarely polygamous flowers; which are produced singly or in axillary cymes, cymose racemes, or cymose panicles containing a few flowers. Calyx tube campanulate to cup-shaped, with 4 or 5 ovate-triangular sepals, which are adaxially ± distinctly keeled. Petals 4 or 5 but a few species may lack petals. The petals are shorter than the sepals. Flowers have 4 or 5 stamens which are surrounded by and equal in length the petals or are shorter. The anthers are dorsifixed. The superior ovary is free, rounded, with 2-4 chambers. Fruits are a 2-4 stoned, berrylike drupe, which is obovoid-globose or globose shaped. Seeds are obovoid or oblong-obovoid shaped, unfurrowed or abaxially or laterally margined with a long, narrow, furrow. The seeds have fleshy endosperm.[2]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Heorotbrēr
العربية: نبق
azərbaycanca: Murdarça
تۆرکجه: موردارچا
башҡортса: Бүре муйылы
български: Зърнастец
català: Rhamnus
Cebuano: Rhamnus
čeština: Řešetlák
dansk: Korsved
Deutsch: Kreuzdorn
dolnoserbski: Gokowc
español: Rhamnus
Esperanto: Ramno
français: Nerprun
հայերեն: Դժնիկ
hornjoserbsce: Hokowc
hrvatski: Krkavina
Ido: Ramno
italiano: Rhamnus
עברית: אשחר
ქართული: ხეშავი
kaszëbsczi: Szatlach
қазақша: Қаражеміс
lietuvių: Šunobelė
Nederlands: Vuilboom
polski: Szakłak
português: Rhamnus
русский: Жостер
suomi: Paatsamat
svenska: Getaplar
Türkçe: Cehri
Winaray: Rhamnus
ייִדיש: פוילבוים
中文: 鼠李属