Republic of Ireland

Ireland[a]

Éire  (Irish)
Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"
(English: "The Soldiers' Song")
Location of  Ireland  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Ireland  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Capital
and largest city
Dublin
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417; -6.26750
Official languages
Irish[1]
Ethnic groups
(2016[2])
  • 82.2% White Irish
  • 9.5% Other White
  • 2.6% Not stated
  • 2.1% Other Asian / Asian Irish
  • 1.5% Other
  • 1.2% Black Irish / Black African
  • 0.7% Irish Traveller
  • 0.1% Other Black
Demonym(s)Irish
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Michael D. Higgins
• Taoiseach
Leo Varadkar
• Tánaiste
Simon Coveney
LegislatureOireachtas
Seanad
Dáil
Independence 
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
• Joined the EEC
1 January 1973
Area
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)
• Water (%)
2.00
Population
• 2018 estimate
Increase 4,857,000[3] (123rd)
• Density
69.1/km2 (179.0/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$382 billion[4] (56th)
• Per capita
$79,925[4] (7th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$385 billion[4] (42nd)
• Per capita
$80,641[4] (4th)
Gini (2014)Negative increase 30.0[5]
medium · 23rd
HDI (2017)Increase 0.938[6]
very high · 4th
CurrencyEuro ()[note 1] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (GMT/WET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (IST/WEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+353
ISO 3166 codeIE
Internet TLD.ie[b]
  1. ^ Article 4 of the Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[7]
  2. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (About this soundlisten)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants.[8] The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[9] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,[10] and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.[11] After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash.[12][13] However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015,[14] Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth (with Germany) most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.[15] It also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[16] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace.

Name

The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".[17] The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution.[18]

The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" (without the diacritic) and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state;[19] it was not until the 1998 Good Friday Agreement that it used the name "Ireland".[20]

As well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is also referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South".[21] In an Irish republican context it is often referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties".[22]

Other Languages
Acèh: Irlandia
Адыгэбзэ: Ирлэнд
Alemannisch: Irland
aragonés: Irlanda
armãneashti: Irlanda
Avañe'ẽ: Ilánda
Aymar aru: Irlandiya
azərbaycanca: İrlandiya
تۆرکجه: ایرلند
Bân-lâm-gú: Ài-ní-lân
башҡортса: Ирландия
беларуская: Ірландыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ірляндыя
Bislama: Ireland
Boarisch: Irland
བོད་ཡིག: ཨར་ལེན་ཌ།
bosanski: Irska
буряад: Ирланд
Cebuano: Irlanda
čeština: Irsko
Chamoru: Irlanda
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Irlanda
chiShona: Ireland
corsu: Irlanda
dansk: Irland
davvisámegiella: Irlánda
Deutsch: Irland
dolnoserbski: Irska
eesti: Iirimaa
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Irlànda
español: Irlanda
Esperanto: Irlando
estremeñu: Irlanda
eʋegbe: Ireland
føroyskt: Írland (land)
français: Irlande (pays)
Frysk: Ierlân
Fulfulde: Irlannda
furlan: Irlande
Gagauz: İrlandiya
galego: Irlanda
贛語: 愛爾蘭
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: आयर्लंड गणराज्य
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ireland
한국어: 아일랜드
Hawaiʻi: ʻIlelani
հայերեն: Իռլանդիա
hornjoserbsce: Irska
hrvatski: Irska
Igbo: Ireland
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আয়ারল্যান্ড
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Irlandia
Interlingue: Irland
Ирон: Ирланди
isiZulu: I-Ayilendi
italiano: Irlanda
עברית: אירלנד
Basa Jawa: Républik Irlan
Kabɩyɛ: Irɩlandɩ
kalaallisut: Irlandi
Kapampangan: Irlanda
къарачай-малкъар: Ирландия
ქართული: ირლანდია
kaszëbsczi: Irlandiô
қазақша: Ирландия
Kinyarwanda: Irilande
Kirundi: Irlanda
Kiswahili: Eire
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ilann
Кыргызча: Ирландия
кырык мары: Ирланди
Ladino: Irlanda
latgaļu: Eireja
latviešu: Īrija
Lëtzebuergesch: Irland
лезги: Ирландия
lietuvių: Airija
Ligure: Éire
Limburgs: Ierland
lingála: Irlandí
Livvinkarjala: Irlandii
la .lojban.: airland
lumbaart: Irlanda
magyar: Írország
македонски: Ирска
Malagasy: Irlanda
Māori: Airangi
مازِرونی: ایرلند جمهوری
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Ireland
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ireland
Mirandés: Eirlanda
монгол: Ирланд
Dorerin Naoero: Ripubrikit Airerand
Nederlands: Ierland (land)
Nedersaksies: Ierlaand (laand)
нохчийн: Ирланди
Nordfriisk: Republiik Irlun
Norfuk / Pitkern: Airiland
norsk: Irland
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Irland
олык марий: Ирландий
Oromoo: Aayerlaandi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Irlandiya
Pangasinan: Irlanda
Papiamentu: Irlandia
Перем Коми: Ирму
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រទេសអៀរឡង់
Piemontèis: Irlanda
Plattdüütsch: Irland
polski: Irlandia
Ποντιακά: Ιρλανδία
Qaraqalpaqsha: İrlandiya
qırımtatarca: İrlandiya
Ripoarisch: Irland
română: Irlanda
Runa Simi: Ilanda
русиньскый: Ірьско
русский: Ирландия
Gagana Samoa: Ripapelika o Aialani
Seeltersk: Irlound
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ireland
sicilianu: Irlanda
Simple English: Republic of Ireland
SiSwati: IYalendi
slovenčina: Írsko
slovenščina: Irska
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єирь
ślůnski: Irlandyjo
Soomaaliga: Ayrland
کوردی: ئیرلەند
Sranantongo: Irikondre
српски / srpski: Република Ирска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Irska
suomi: Irlanti
svenska: Irland
tarandíne: Irlanne
татарча/tatarça: Ирландия
tetun: Irlanda
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏲᎳᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ireland (Republic)
Tshivenda: Ireland
Türkçe: İrlanda
Türkmençe: Irlandiýa
удмурт: Ирландия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Irlandia
українська: Ірландія
vèneto: Irlanda
vepsän kel’: Irlandii
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Ireland
Volapük: Lireyän
Võro: Iirimaa
walon: Irlande
West-Vlams: Republiek Ierland
Wolof: Irlaand
吴语: 爱尔兰
Xitsonga: Ireland
ייִדיש: אירלאנד
Yorùbá: Írẹ́lándì
žemaitėška: Airėjė
中文: 爱尔兰