Reproduction

Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the miracle leaf plant (Kalanchoe pinnata). The small plant in front is about 1 cm (0.4 in) tall. The concept of "individual" is obviously stretched by this asexual reproductive process.

Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.

In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce[1] and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes.[2]

Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosis, with typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote. This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms.

Asexual

Asexual reproduction is a process by which organisms create genetically similar or identical copies of themselves without the contribution of genetic material from another organism. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of the order Hydroidea) and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more copies of themselves. Most plants have the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant species Mycocepurus smithii is thought to reproduce entirely by asexual means.

Some species that are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydra, yeast (See Mating of yeasts) and jellyfish, may also reproduce sexually. For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction—reproduction without seeds or spores—but can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation.

Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis, fragmentation and spore formation that involves only mitosis. Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants (where it is called apomixis), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids, some bees and parasitic wasps), and vertebrates (e.g. some reptiles,[3] fish, and, very rarely, birds[4] and sharks[5]). It is sometimes also used to describe reproduction modes in hermaphroditic species which can self-fertilize.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Voortplanting
Alemannisch: Fortpflanzung
العربية: تكاثر
aragonés: Reproducción
অসমীয়া: প্ৰজনন
asturianu: Reproducción
azərbaycanca: Nəsil artırma
বাংলা: প্রজনন
Bân-lâm-gú: Seⁿ-thoàⁿ
башҡортса: Үрсеү
беларуская: Размнажэнне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Размнажэньне
български: Размножаване
bosanski: Razmnožavanje
català: Reproducció
čeština: Rozmnožování
chiShona: Sikarudzi
Cymraeg: Atgenhedlu
dansk: Formering
Deutsch: Fortpflanzung
Ελληνικά: Αναπαραγωγή
español: Reproducción
Esperanto: Reproduktado
estremeñu: Reproducion
euskara: Ugalketa
فارسی: تولید مثل
Gaeilge: Atáirgeadh
galego: Reprodución
한국어: 생식
հայերեն: Բազմացում
हिन्दी: जनन
hrvatski: Reprodukcija
Ilokano: Reproduksion
Bahasa Indonesia: Reproduksi
íslenska: Æxlun
italiano: Riproduzione
עברית: רבייה
Basa Jawa: Réprodhuksi
Kapampangan: Pamiparakal
къарачай-малкъар: Кёблениу
ქართული: გამრავლება
қазақша: Көбею
Kiswahili: Uzazi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Repwodiksyon
Кыргызча: Көбөйүү
Latina: Procreatio
latviešu: Vairošanās
lietuvių: Dauginimasis
Limburgs: Veurtplantjing
magyar: Szaporodás
македонски: Размножување
मराठी: प्रजनन
მარგალური: ძინა
مصرى: تكاثر
Bahasa Melayu: Pembiakan
नेपाल भाषा: मचा बुइकिगु
日本語: 生殖
norsk: Formering
norsk nynorsk: Forplanting
occitan: Reproduccion
олык марий: Тӱлымаш
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪ੍ਰਜਨਨ
پنجابی: جمن
Patois: Riprodokshan
polski: Rozmnażanie
português: Reprodução
română: Reproducere
Runa Simi: Miraykuy
русиньскый: Розмножованя
русский: Размножение
shqip: Riprodhimi
සිංහල: ප්‍රජනනය
Simple English: Reproduction
slovenščina: Razmnoževanje
کوردی: زاوزێ
српски / srpski: Репродукција
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Razmnožavanje
Basa Sunda: Baranahan
svenska: Fortplantning
Tagalog: Pagpaparami
татарча/tatarça: Үрчү
тоҷикӣ: Афзоиш
Türkçe: Üreme
українська: Розмноження
اردو: تولید
vèneto: Reprodussion
Tiếng Việt: Sinh sản
Winaray: Reproduksyon
吴语: 繁殖
粵語: 生殖
中文: 繁殖