Renaissance

David, by Michelangelo ( Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, Italy) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.

The Renaissance ( UK: s/, US: s/) [1] was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a cultural movement in Italy in the Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Modern age.

The intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe.

As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, and in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man". [2] [3]

The Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. [4] Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici; [5] [6] and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks. [7] [8] [9] Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, and finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy.

The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation. [10] The art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance":

It is perhaps no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization—historians of economic and social developments, political and religious situations, and, most particularly, natural science—but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly ever by historians of Art. [11]

Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, [12] while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, [13] which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties". [14]

The word Renaissance, literally meaning "Rebirth" in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. [15] The word also occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France. The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. [16]

Overview

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. [17]

Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary, historical, and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople (1453) generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.

In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. [18] In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity. This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus, would help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation.

Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola Pisano, Florentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, that is to understand it rationally. A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" ( Oration on the Dignity of Man, 1486), which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason. In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of printing, this would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible. [19]

In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought. Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark, [20] play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ages, which married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism. This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states (France and Spain) were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution that preceded and financed the Renaissance.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Renaissance
Alemannisch: Renaissance
አማርኛ: ዘመነ ህዳሴ
العربية: عصر النهضة
aragonés: Renaiximiento
asturianu: Renacimientu
azərbaycanca: İntibah dövrü
تۆرکجه: رونسانس
বাংলা: রেনেসাঁস
Bân-lâm-gú: Bûn-gē-ho̍k-heng
башҡортса: Яңырыу
беларуская: Адраджэнне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Адраджэньне
български: Ренесанс
Boarisch: Renaissance
bosanski: Renesansa
brezhoneg: Azginivelezh
català: Renaixement
Чӑвашла: Ренессанс
Cebuano: Renasans
čeština: Renesance
Cymraeg: Dadeni Dysg
Deutsch: Renaissance
eesti: Renessanss
Ελληνικά: Αναγέννηση
español: Renacimiento
Esperanto: Renesanco
euskara: Pizkundea
فارسی: رنسانس
Fiji Hindi: Renaissance
føroyskt: Renessansan
français: Renaissance
furlan: Rinassiment
galego: Renacemento
한국어: 르네상스
Հայերեն: Վերածնունդ
हिन्दी: पुनर्जागरण
hrvatski: Renesansa
Ilokano: Renasimiento
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad Renaisans
interlingua: Renascentia
íslenska: Endurreisnin
italiano: Rinascimento
עברית: רנסאנס
Basa Jawa: Abad Renaisans
ქართული: რენესანსი
қазақша: Ренессанс
Kiswahili: Renaissance
Kreyòl ayisyen: Renesans
Kurdî: Ronesans
лезги: Ренессанс
latviešu: Renesanse
Lëtzebuergesch: Renaissance
lietuvių: Renesansas
Ligure: Renascimento
Limburgs: Renaissance
lumbaart: Renassiment
magyar: Reneszánsz
македонски: Ренесанса
მარგალური: რენესანსი
مازِرونی: رنسانس
Bahasa Melayu: Zaman Pembaharuan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ùng-ngiê-hók-hĭng
Mirandés: Renacimiento
Nederlands: Renaissance
Nedersaksies: Renaissance
日本語: ルネサンス
norsk nynorsk: Renessansen
occitan: Renaissença
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Uygʻonish davri
پنجابی: نشاۃ ثانیہ
Patois: Renesans
Piemontèis: Arnassensa
Plattdüütsch: Renaissance
polski: Renesans
português: Renascimento
română: Renașterea
rumantsch: Renaschientscha
русиньскый: Ренесанція
русский: Возрождение
саха тыла: Ренессанс
Seeltersk: Renaissance
shqip: Rilindja
sicilianu: Rinascimentu
සිංහල: පුනරුදය
Simple English: Renaissance
slovenčina: Renesancia
slovenščina: Renesansa
کوردی: ڕینێسانس
српски / srpski: Ренесанса
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Renesansa
svenska: Renässansen
Tagalog: Renasimiyento
Türkçe: Rönesans
Türkmençe: Wozroždeniýe
українська: Відродження
vèneto: Rinasimento
Tiếng Việt: Phục Hưng
Võro: Renessanss
文言: 文藝復興
West-Vlams: Renaissance
Winaray: Renasimyento
吴语: 文艺复兴
ייִדיש: רענעסאנס
粵語: 文藝復興
žemaitėška: Renesansos
中文: 文艺复兴