Raphael

Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio.jpg
Presumed portrait of Raphael[1]
Born
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino

March 28 or April 6, 1483
DiedApril 6, 1520 (aged 37)
Resting placeThe Pantheon, Rome
Known for
Notable work
list
MovementHigh Renaissance

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael (əl/, US: l/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5]

Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking.

After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (1504–1508) absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.[6]

Urbino

Giovanni Santi, Raphael's father; Christ supported by two angels, c.1490

Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region,[7] where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke. The reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a highly successful condottiere who had been created Duke of Urbino by the Pope – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, and had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, and both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments. His poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well. In the very small court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters.[8]

Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari.[9] Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, and they became good friends. He became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both later cardinals, were already becoming well known as writers, and would be in Rome during Raphael's period there. Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however; it is unclear how easily he read Latin.[10]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Рафаэл Санти
Afrikaans: Raphael
Alemannisch: Raffael
العربية: رفائيل
aragonés: Raffaello Sanzio
armãneashti: Raffaello Sanzio
অসমীয়া: ৰাফায়েল
asturianu: Raffaello Sanzio
Aymar aru: Raffaello Sanzio
azərbaycanca: Rafael Santi
تۆرکجه: رافائل
বাংলা: রাফায়েল
Bân-lâm-gú: Raffaello Sanzio
башҡортса: Рафаэль Санти
беларуская: Рафаэль Санці
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рафаэль
Bislama: Raphael
български: Рафаело Санцио
Boarisch: Raphael
bosanski: Raffaello Santi
brezhoneg: Raffaello Sanzio
Чӑвашла: Рафаэль
čeština: Raffael Santi
davvisámegiella: Rafael
Deutsch: Raffael
eesti: Raffael
Ελληνικά: Ραφαήλ
español: Rafael Sanzio
Esperanto: Rafaelo
estremeñu: Rafael Sanzio
euskara: Rafael
فارسی: رافائل
Fiji Hindi: Raphael
galego: Rafael
ગુજરાતી: રફાયેલ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Raffaello
Hausa: Raphael
Hawaiʻi: Raffael Santi
हिन्दी: राफेल
hrvatski: Rafael
Ilokano: Rafael Sanzio
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: রাফায়েল
Bahasa Indonesia: Raffaello Sanzio
interlingua: Raphael
íslenska: Raffaello Sanzio
Basa Jawa: Raffaello Sanzio
Kabɩyɛ: Raphael
kalaallisut: Raphael
Kapampangan: Raphael
ქართული: რაფაელი
kernowek: Raphael Sanzio
Kiswahili: Raphael
Кыргызча: Рафаэль
latviešu: Rafaēls
Lëtzebuergesch: Raffael
lietuvių: Rafaelis
Limburgs: Rafaël
Livvinkarjala: Rafael
македонски: Рафаел
Malagasy: Raphaël
മലയാളം: റാഫേൽ
Māori: Raphael
मराठी: रफायेल
მარგალური: რაფაელ სანტი
مازِرونی: رافائل
Bahasa Melayu: Raffaello Sanzio
Mirandés: Rafael
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရာဖယ်
Dorerin Naoero: Raphael
नेपाल भाषा: राफेल
norsk: Rafael
norsk nynorsk: Rafael
олык марий: Рафаэль Санти
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Rafael Santi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰਾਫੇਲ
پنجابی: رافیل
Picard: Raffaello
Piemontèis: Raffaello Sanzio
polski: Rafael Santi
português: Rafael
Qaraqalpaqsha: Raphael
română: Rafael
Runa Simi: Raffaello Sanzio
русиньскый: Рафаел
саха тыла: Рафаэль
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱨᱟᱯᱷᱟᱭᱮᱞ
Scots: Raphael
Seeltersk: Raffaelo Santi
shqip: Raffaello
sicilianu: Raffaellu Sanziu
Simple English: Raphael
slovenčina: Raffael
slovenščina: Raffaello Santi
کوردی: ڕافایێل
српски / srpski: Рафаело Санти
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rafael
suomi: Rafael
Tagalog: Rafael Sanzio
Taqbaylit: Raffaello
tarandíne: Raffaelle Sanzio
татарча/tatarça: Rafael Santi
українська: Рафаель Санті
اردو: رافیل
vepsän kel’: Rafael' Santi
Tiếng Việt: Raffaello
Volapük: Raffaello
West-Vlams: Rafaël
吴语: 拉斐尔
ייִדיש: ראפאעל
粵語: 拉斐爾
žemaitėška: Rafaelės
中文: 拉斐尔